AP Human Geography Unit 7 Vocab

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base ratio
ratio between workers employed in the basic sector and those employed in the nonbasic sector
basic, nonbasic sectors
BASIC: Some city workers produce goods or services for areas outside the city. These "export activities" result in money flowing into city. NONBASIC: Other produces goods or services for resident of the city itself, and their work.
Burgess, E.W.
sociologist who created the concentric model in 1923
Bosnywash
the heavily populated area extending from Boston to Washington and including New York City, Philadelphia, and Baltimore.One big megalopolis
census tract
An area deliniated by the us beureau of the census for which statisitcs are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods
central business district (CBD)
The downtown or nucleus of a city where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quite high; and transportation systems converge.
center city
Cities that provide goods and services for the surrounding area (suburbs)
central place theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.
Christaller, Walter
German geographer credited with development central place theory
city
a large and densely populated urban area
city-state
a city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
complementary regions
where each individual urban center and its merchants have a sales monopoly
concentric zone model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
councils of government
cooperative agencies consisting of representatives from local governments in the region
disamenity sector
a relatively stable slum area that radiates from the central market to the outermost zone of peripheral squatter of settlements consists of high-density shantytowns
edge cities
cities that are located on the on the outskirts of larger cities and serve many of the same functions of urban areas, but in a sprawling, decetralized suburban environment
export activities
the process of importing goods and services for areas outside the city
ferminization of poverty
the increasing concentration of poverty among women especially unmarried women and their children.
formative era
The period between about 7000 and 5000 bc which noted the beginnings of the development of states and urbanization
gentrification
process of buying run-down homes in older areas of a community and restoring them
ghettos, ghettoization
GHETTOS: portion of a city in which members of a minority group live; especially because of social, legal, or economic pressure. GHETTOIZATION: The process of becoming a ghetto, an isolated and underprivileged urban area.
greenbelts
rings of open space where houses may not be built
hamlet
a community of people smaller than a village
Harris and Ullman
developed the multiple-nuclei model in 1945
hierarchy of central places
the nesting of small hexagons within larger ones, small centers providing lower-order services than the large centers do
Hoyt, Homer
land economist who developed the sector model in 1939
Infrastructure
the basic structure or features of a system or organization
in situ accretion
where less expensive homes and businesses seem to be in a chronic state of ongoing construction and renovation.
manufacturing city
a city overrun with factories, supply facilities, the expansion of transport systems, and the construction of tenements for a growing labor force.
megacity
City with more than 10 million people, a giant urban area that includes the surrounding cities and suburbs
megalopolis
a very large urban complex (usually involving several cities and towns) the highest level of urban hiearchy
megastores
huge stores with a wide variety of products designed for one stop shopping
mercantile city
a city where trade is part of the central design
metropolitan area
a functional area including a city and its surrounding suburbs, linked economically
metropolitan statistical area
In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city.
micropolitan statistical area
a similar but smaller version of a metropolis, with at least one urban cluster between 10,000 and 50,000 people plus outlying counties with considerable social and economic integration
multiple-nuclei model
A model of the internal structure of large cities develop by spreading from several nodes of growth, not just one
multiplier effect
takes hold in which new basic sector employment is accompanied by a larger share of nonbasic workers, decreasing the ratio of basic sector workers to nonbasic
nucleated
a relatively dense settlement form.
peripheral model
A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
physical city
a continuous development that contains a central city and many nearby cities, towns, and suburbs
primate cities
Larger than other cities in the area and representing a national culture.
public housing
a housing development that is publicly funded and administered for low-income families
rank-size rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
rush hours
the two-hour period in the morning when people are going to work and the two-hour period in the afternoon when they are coming home
sector models
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
settlement geography
the patterns of settlement on the earth's surface
smart growth
legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland
social area analysis
a type of study that puts together information from the census tracts to create and overall picture of how various types of people are distrbuted within a broader area, like a city
special-function cities
cities engaged in mining, manufacturing, or recreation
sprawl
Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
states
organized territories under governments
suburbs
areas that are also nucleated, but use much land space for residences of people that work in or near cities
town
an urban area with a fixed boundary that is smaller than a city
transportation centers
where major routes converge
urban areas
a geographical area constituting a city or town, nucleated, with one or more core area, and that people who live in them work in non agricultural jobs
urban elite
a group of decision makers and organizers who control the resources, and sometimes the lives of others
urban empire
A nation or group of territories ruled by a single, powerful leader or emperor
urban geography
focuses on how cities function, their internal systems and structures, and the external influences on them
urban hierarchy
a ranking of settlements according to their size and economic functions
urban influence zone
Areas outside the city that are affected by it.
urban renewal
the government to buys properties from the owners, relocate residents and businesses, clear, rebuild and redevelop urban slums
Wirth, Louis
1930s social scientist that defined a city as a permanent settlement that has large size, high density, and social heterogenity
world city
Centers of economic, culture, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce.
zone in transition
an area of mixed commercial and residential land uses surrounding the CBD.
zone of maturity
Former squatter residences that have been upgraded and incorporated into the city
zoning ordinances
rules developed in Europe and North America in the 20th century that encouraged spatial separation, also prevented mixing of land uses within the same district