Chapter 30 APUSH
Terms in this set (41)
president 1974-77, Nixon's Vice president, only person not voted into the White House, appointed vice president by Nixon: became president after Nixon resigned
The 39th President who created the Department of Energy and the Department of Education. He was criticized for his return of the Panama Canal Zone, and his last year in office was marked by the takeover of the American embassy in Iran, fuel shortages, and the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, which caused him to lose to Ronald Regan in the next election.
(1978-1979) a revolution against the shah of Iran led by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, which resulted in Iran becoming an Islamic republic with Khomeini as its leader
The politics of the Sunbelt states (Florida, Texas, and California). Politics in these areas grew more aggressive toward the government.
Christians who experience an immediate personal relationship with Jesus Christ, often through a born-again experience. Focuses on a more personal, rather than literal, interpretation of the bible.
Election of 1976
Ford vs Carter, Carter wins. Important because he was the first president from the south for a while and people thought he would bring fresh ideas
Camp David Accords
The first signed agreement between Israel and an Arab country, in which Egyptian president Anwar Sadat recognized Israel as a legitimate state and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin agreed to return the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt. Was agreed on at Camp David under direction of Carter.
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan to help the Afghan communist government crush anticommunist Muslim guerrillas; anti communist guerrillas received support from US and GB; USSR withdrew→ communist party remained in power
1970's mobilized conservative opposition to environmental laws and restrictions; members complained about the land the federal government owned in many western states.
political organization of the United States which had an agenda of evangelical Christian-oriented political lobbying. Formed by Jerry Falwell. Organization made up of conservative Christian political action committees which campaigned on issues its personnel believed were important to maintaining its Christian conception of moral law. This group pressured for legislation that would ban abortion and ban the states' acceptance of homosexuality.
in the 1990's, Pentecostal minister Pat Robertson began a political movement and launched this organization. These and other organizations of the Christian right opposed federal interference in local affairs; denounced abortion, divorce, feminism, and homosexuality; defended unrestricted free enterprise, and supported a strong American posture in the world.
First elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reaganomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns.
Election of 1980
Ronald Reagan won over Jimmy Carter because of the Iranian hostage crisis and America's stagflation.
a small influential group of thinkers who were supporters of Ronald Regan. They were acting against the 1960's liberalism. They took tough anti-Soviet positions in foreign policy. They championed free-market capitalism liberated from government's restraints. They questioned liberal forms of welfare programs and affirmative action policies. They encouraged traditional values, individualism, and the centrality of the family.
Recession of 1982
Far worse than Carter years. Worst recession since Great Depression. Resulted from Reagan's tax cuts. This was almost a planned recession. In Carter administration stagflation was prevalent. Decided that they have to kill inflation. Recession largely caused by fiscal policy. Designed to finally end inflation. Reagan's supply-side theories turned out to not work.
allowed all citizens to introduce a bill into the legislative and required members to take a vote on it
Small Latin country where a communist government had taken power. Reagan invaded the country in protest of communist expansion, showing that he was not pursuing détente.
Members of a leftist coalition that overthrew the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasia Somoza in 1979 and attempted to install a socialist economy. The United States financed armed opposition by the Contras. The Sandinistas lost national elections in 1990
the calculated use of violence (or threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that are political or religious or ideological in nature
last communist leader of Russia; tried to fix Soviet Union; overthrown in 90s; Russia became a democracy after he was overthrown
a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
Started in 1991. There was a coup by Soviet leaders that was collapsed because of public resistance. Gorbachev returned to power, but then resigned as leader. His resignation caused the Soviet Union to end.
Although Congress had prohibited aid to the Nicaraguan contras, individuals in Reagan's administration continued to illegally support the rebels. These officials secretly sold weapons to Iran in exchange for the release of American hostages being held in the Middle East. Profits from these sales were then sent to the contras.
republican, former director of CIA, oil company founder/owner, foreign policy (panama, gulf war), raised taxes even though said he wouldn't, more centrist than his son, NAFTA negotiation
Gulf War 1990-1991
Iraqi armed forces invaded Kuwait. The Bush administration decided to lead other countries in a campaign to force Iraq out of Kuwait. Bush persuaded many important governments to join in on a United Nations-sanctioned trade embargo of Iraq. The U.S. and its allies deployed an enormous military force along the border between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. This force was compiled of 690,000 troops. The United Nations voted to allow military action to expel Iraq from Kuwait if Iraq did not leave by January 15th. On January 16th, the U.S. and its allies' air forces bombed Iraqi forces in Kuwait. On February 23 America and its allies began a ground offense. Iraq surrendered on February 28th.
This billionaire was a third-party candidate in the 1992 presidential election won 19 percent of the popular vote. His strong showing that year demonstrated voter disaffection with the two major parties.
Conservative political movements in industrialized democracies that have arisen since the 1960's and stress "traditional values," often with a racist undertone.
Proposition 13 in California that slashed property taxes and forced painful cuts in government services
War between Iraq and Iran that was started in September of 1980 by Saddam Hussein when he decided to invade the country. The primary goal was to seize control over Iran's oil facilities.
the policies of the first Reagan administration which increased defense spending reduced social programs and cut taxes they were based on supply side theory of growing the economy by cutting government interference and taxes
The federal economic polices of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side tax cuts, and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth.
policy that the united states would provide military assistance to anti-communist groups fighting against pro-soviet governments
Three U.S. nuns found shot in El Salvador in December, 1980. President Carter had stopped aid to El Salvador's right-wing dictator, but President Reagan started it again.
Beirut Bombing 1983
In April of 1983, a suicide bomber drove a bomb-laden van into the US Embassy in Beirut, killing 63 people. In October of the same year, suicide bombers drove tow trucks into two different building housing American and French soldiers. 299 died in the attacks. As a result of the attacks, the US pulled out of Beirut. In a speech in 1984, Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger, who had opposed the Beirut mission, enunciated the lesson he drew from Lebanon: Don't commit insufficient military forces to an ill-defined mission with no clear national interest or exit strategy.
Election of 1984
Reagan v. Walter Mondale. Reagan would carry every state except Mondale's native Minnesota and D.C.
Site in Beijing where Chinese students and workers gathered to demand greater political openness in 1989. The demonstration was crushed by Chinese military with great loss of life.
Savings & Loan Crisis
a serious scandal emerged within the Savings and Loan industry, which the Reagan administration had helped deregulate in the early 1980's. By the end of the decade the industry was in chaos, and the government was forced to step in to prevent a complete collapse. The cost of the debacle to the public eventually ran to more than half a trillion dollars.
Election of 1988
George Bush (winner) vs. Michael Dukakis. Bush was elected on the strength of his association with Regan, seeming poised to confirm the ascendancy of his predecessor's conservative values.
Recession of 1990
Caused by the debt that corporations and individuals had amassed during the 1980s. This recession caused bankruptcies and increased the fear and frustration of the middle- and working-class Americans. It also put pressure on the government.
Election of 1992
Bill Clinton defeats George Bush. The Democrats would have control of the presidency, the house and the senate.
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