61 terms

Biology

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All ______ things are composed of cells.
Living things
Cells are the basic units of ____ and ____ in all organisms.
Life, live
New cells are produced from
Division of existing cells
The cells of eukaryotes have a(an) ____; the cells of ___________ do not.
Nuclei, prokaryotes
Eukaryotic cells also have a variety of specialized structures called _______.
Organelles
The smallest bacterium is 0.2 micrometers across, while the giant amoeba Chaos chaos is 1000 micrometers across. How many times larger is the giant amoeba than the smallest bacterium?
5,000x
Comparing and contrasting explain the similarities and differences between a prokaryotic cell and a eukaryotic cell.
Eukaryotic cells contain nuclei, prokaryotic cells don't.
Are human cells prokaryotic or eukaryotic? Explain your answer.
Eukaryotic because they have a nucleus.
Plants have cells that contain chloroplasts. Why must their cells contain mitochondria as well?
The chloroplast performs photosynthesis to create glucose. The cell can't do anything with the sugar. The plant cell must take the sugar and put it through the cellular respiration in the mitochondria so a lot of ATP can be created to power all the other cellular activities.
In some ways, a cell is analogous to a factory. Create an analogy describing the job of a lysosome within a cellular factory.
They would be the clean up crew.
What structures make plant and animal cells different?
The animal cell doesn't have a cell wall, or chloroplasts, or a vacuole.
What are two functions of the cell membrane?
Regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also provides protection and support.
What happens to a higher concentration of dissolved molecules on one side of a cell membrane during the process of diffusion?
Because diffusion depends upon random particle movements, substances diffuse across membranes without requiring the cell to use energy.
What is osmosis?
The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
For a molecule to move from an area of low concentration to high concentration, the process of ______ must occur.
Diffusion
Why do multicellular organisms contain specialized cells?
Cell through out an organism can develop in different ways to perform different tasks.
Give two examples of specialized cells and explain the cell's unique role in the human body.
Red blood cells transport oxygen throughout the body
-muscle cells give us the ability to move
Place the following terms in order from smallest to largest level of organization.
Tissues
Organ systems
Organs
Individual cells
1. Individual cells
2. Tissues
3. Organs
4. Organ systems
Compare the activities of a specialized cell in a multicellular organism to those of a unicellular organism.
Specialized cells in a multicellular organism perform a single function in relation to the needs of the organism to which they belong. A unicellular organism cannot specialize to the degree of a multicellular, all the functions and needs of the organism must be made by one cell.
Is your tongue a tissue, an organ, or an organ system? Explain your answer.
An organ because each muscle in your body is an individual organ.
How are tissues and organs different?
Tissues make up organs.
Cell
The basic units of life
Cell theory
A fundamental concept of biology
Nucleus
A large membrane-enclosed structure that contains the cells genetic material in the form of DNA
Eukaryote
Cells that contain nuclei
Prokaryote
Cells that do not contain nuclei
Organelle
any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.
Cytoplasm
The portion of the cell outside the nucleus
Nuclear envelope
the double lipid bilayer membrane which surrounds the genetic material and nucleolus in eukaryotic cells
Chromatin
The granular material you can see in the nucleus
Chromosome
When a cell divides chromatin condenses to come chromosomes
Nucleolus
Where the assembly of ribosomes begin
Ribosome
Small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm
Endoplasmic reticulum
The site where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials that are exported from the cell
Golgi apparatus
a complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracellular transport.
Lysosome
Small organelles filled with enzymes
Vacuole
Sacklike structures that store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
Mitochondria
Organelles that convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
Chloroplast
Organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis
Cytoskeleton
A network of protein filaments that helps the cell to maintain its shape
Centriole
Located near the nucleus and help to organize cell division
Cell membrane
All cells are surrounded by a thin flexible barrier
Cell wall
A strong supporting layer around the membran
Lipid bilayer
The composition of nearly all cell membranes is a double layered sheet called a lipid bilayer
Concentration
The mass of a solute in a given volume of solution, or mass/volume
Diffusion
Particles tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
Equilibrium
When the concentration of the solute is the same throughout a system
Osmosis
The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Isotonic
When the concentrations of water and sugar will be the same on both sides of the membrane
Hypertonic
The more concentrated sugar solution
Hypotonic
The dilute sugar solution
Facilitated diffusion
the process of spontaneous passive transport of molecules or ions across a biological membrane
Active transport
the movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy
Endocytosis
The process of taking material into the cells by means of infoldings or pockets, of the cell membrane
Phagocytosis
the ingestion of bacteria or other material by phagocytes and amoeboid protozoans
Pinocytosis
the ingestion of liquid into a cell by the budding of small vesicles from the cell membrane.
Exocytosis
a process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane
Cell specialization
Cells through out and organism can develops in different ways to perform different tasks
Tissue
A group of similar cells that perform a particular function
Organ
Many groups of tissues work together as an organ
Organ system
A group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
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