Terms in this set (63)
Perspectives on Normality
choose to discuss variations and differences rather than judging by the criteria
behavior similar to one's own
commonplace, change over time
Clinically normal (objectively)
presence or absence of infection
biological or genetic trait that is unchangeable
traits gained by societal norms; continues to change
influences our understanding of sexual behavior
Both sex centered
belief that the goal of human life is pursuit of pleasure, aviodance of pain, and fulfillment of physical needs and desires
an approach to life emphasizing discipline and impulse control
following a moral law or set of principles
based on human experience, and in matters of sexual morality, tends to focus on relationships rather than rules.
observers of media feel images represent mainstream culture- people think that what they see on tv really represents what is happening-why is that sometimes a problem?
Selections of those working in media outlets inform the topics of discussion- social and cultural taboos remain embedded in the media-tell us what to ignore and what to pay attention to
people learn through observation of models in
"Triple A Engine"
Access, affordability and anonymity
Unit of Analysis
sex act or reference to a sex act (visual or verbal incidents or references to sexual activity within a scene).
Moralism (Religious right)
there are clearly and objectively defined standards of right and wrong and a society has a right to insist that its member conform to them, at least outwardly -derives from divine law.
Pluralism (Individual freedoms)
truth is to be discovered in the clash of differing opinions and convictions. Society is wise to allow many points of view to be advocated and expressed.
Why sex?- emotional
Why sex?- insecurity
Why sex?- goal attainment
Ovulation timing and sex
Freud's psychoanalytic theory
He saw libido (sex drive or sex energy) as one of the two major forces in human life. The other is thanatos (the death instinct).
Classical conditioning (Pavlov)
Operant conditioning (Skinner)
Social Learning Theory (Bandura)
What we think influences how we feel
Perceptions of a sexual event
Labeling and evaluating
Cycle of arousal
Cause and treatment of sexual disorders
Gender Schema Theory
set of attributes that we associate with males and females
Socialization Theories (Social Exchange Theory)
The way we feel about a given relationship and behave toward our partner depends upon the type of outcomes we receive in return for what we have put into the relationship
Social Constructivist Theory
Behaviors and types of people are socially constructed, created, developed and maintained by groups and cultures
Symbolic interaction Theory
A person's behavior is constructed through relationships
Erotophilia versus Erotophobia
Two ends of personality continuum. Related to positive or negative emotions/and or attitudes about one's own or others sexuality
A person's willingness to have sex in the absence
of a commitment and without an emotional attachment
-Openess to Experience High openness related to lower sexual anxiety
-Conscientiousness Low C; linked to risky sexual behavior
-Agreeableness Low A linked to infidelity and risky sex
-Extraversion High E linked to more partners, sexual risk taking, Low E (Introversion) linked to unprotected sex
-Neuroticism High Neuroticism linked to risky and unprotected sex
-Suggest that sexual behavior is as scripted as a play in a theater.
-Tell us an etiquette of sexual behavior.
-Tell us the meaning we should attach to a particular sexual event.
Gender as status and Inequality
Gender Roles and Socialization
Co-opted as a positive term and expanded to include interests and other topics. Challenges heteronormativity and questions the gender binary. Argues that sexual identity is not fixed.
Scientific study of sex
-Quick and easy way to collect data. Several modes of administration.
-Non-response. Self-selection. Social-desirability and other response biases.
-Less chance of response biases. Observations can be preserved.
-Limited generalizability. Subjective self-reports.
-Precise control of variables. Ability to infer cause and effect.
-Not possible or ethical to implement for all research questions. Several threats to external validity.
Volunteer bias and selection issues may occur when the researcher studies people who agree to be in the research.
-People who volunteer for sexuality studies are more likely to be male, to have had sexual intercourse, to have performed oral sex, to hold more positive attitudes about sexuality, to be more interested in sexual variety, and to have less sexual anxiety and guilt
▪Purposeful distortion - intentionally giving self-reports that are distortions of reality.
▪Memory - it is difficult to remember facts accurately.
▪Difficulties with estimates - it is difficult to estimate time, especially when engaged in an absorbing activity or if substances are involved.
▪Socially desirable responding
Henry Havelock Ellis
Deviations are harmless
Masturbation is harmless
Homosexuality is congenital
Dr. Clelia Mosher
Sex for recreation as well as procreation
Richard von Kraft-Ebing
Neither objective nor tolerant
Concepts of homosexuality
sadism, masochism, pedophilia
Tied "deviancy" to masturbation
Founded first sex institute
Sexual reform efforts for the gay community
Institute destroyed by Nazi's
Robert Latou Dickinson
Collected sexual histories
Viewed patients masturbating and observed climax
John B. Watson
Took "readings and made records" of
personal sexual activity
American Psychologist championed the position that homosexuality was normal and not pathological
-Influenced the APA to remove homosexuality from the DSM in 1973.
▪Inherent Design Flaws
▪Sample of Convenience
▪Face to Face Interviews
▪Filming & personal research
▪Sexual Diversity and variation
▪Reevaluation of Masturbation
▪Rejection of Normal/Abnormal Dichotomy
▪Criticisms - Emphasis on quantifying behavior; rejection of the psychological dimension
Masters and Johnson
-The physiology of human sexual response; treatment of sexual dysfunction
Freud's stages of psychosexual development
Limitations of sex research
People aren't open
Hard to study
National Health and Social Life
Most comprehensive sex survey to date
Orgasms - rule for men and exception for women
The National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB)
-Among adults, 7% of women and 8% of men identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual
-85% of men ad 64% of women reported reaching orgasm during their most recent sexual experience
-Among participants who were single, only one in three acts of vaginal intercourse involved condom use
-Black and Hispanic men were more likely to use condoms during intercourse than White men
-Adolescents reported being more likely to use condoms during intercourse than adults over age 40
Study on Adolescents