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Biology 1151: Lecture Exam 4 - Chapter 28 ; Dr. Ludden; College of Dupage

Biology 1151; Dr. Ludden-College of Dupage; Chapter 28; Kim Kwas
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Leeuwenhoek:
Last name of the Dutch microscopist who first discovered protists
Protists / unicellular:
____ are more structurally and funcionally diverse than any other group of eukaryotes; most are _____.
Nutritionally diverse:
Protists are ____ ____ , in that some are photoautotrophs, some are heterotrophs and others are mixotrophs.
Mixotrophs:
____ combine photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition.
Endosymbiosis:
_____ is the process in which certain unicellular organisms engulf other cells, which become endosymbionts and ultimately organelles in the host cell.
Excavata:
_____ is the protist super group that includes parasites such as Giardia.
Chromalveolata:
_____ is the protist super group that includes diatoms and brown algae (kelp forests).
Rhizaria:
____ is the protist super group that consists of species of amoebas.
Archaeplastida:
_____ is the protist super group that includes land plants, red & green algae, such as volvox.
Unikonta:
____ is the protist super group that includes animals and fungi.
Diplomonads:
____ are a sub-catagory of Excavata, that have two equal-sized nuclei and multiple flagella, such as Giardia.
Parabasalids:
____ are a sub-catagory of Excavata and includes the parabasalid Trichomonas Vaginalis, a sexually transmitted parasite that infects 5 million people each year.
Euglenozoans:
_____ are a sub-catagory of Excavata and their main morphological feature is the presence of a sprial or crystalline rod inside their flagella.
Kinetoplastids:
_____ are one of two sub-catagories of Euglenozoans (Excavata) that have a single, large mitochondrion containing an organized mass of DNA called a kinetoplast.
Euglenids:
____ are one of two sub-catagories of Euglenozoans (excavata) which have a pocket at one end from which one or two flagella emerge. Ex: Euglena
Euglena:
____ are mixotrophs.
Alveolates:
_____are one of two sub-catagories of Chromalveolates that have membrane-bounded sacs (alveoli) just under the plasma membrane.
Stramenopiles:
____ are one of two sub-catagories of Chromalveolates composed of marine algae and have a characteristic flagellum, with numerous fine, hairlike projections.
Dinoflagellates:
____ are one of three sub-catagories of Alveolates (Chromalveolates) and are characterized by cells that are reinforced by cellulose plates.
Red Tides:
Dinoflagellate blooms are episodes of explosive population growth that sometimes cause a phenomenon called ___ ____.
Ciliates:
_____ are one of three sub-catagories of Alveolates (Chromalveolates) that are named for thier use of cilia to move and feed; ex: paramecium
Diatoms:
____ are one of four sub-catagories of Stramenopiles (Chromalveolates) that are unicellular algae made of hydrated silica embedded in an organic matrix.
Asexually:
Most of the year, diatoms reproduce ______ by mitosis; each daughter cell receives half of the parental cell wall.
Brown Algae:
____ ____ is one of four sub-catagories of Stramenopiles (Chromalveolates) that are the largest and most complex algae, commonly called seaweeds.
Golden Algae:
____ ____ is one of four sub-catagories of Stramenopiles (Chromalveolates) whose color is derived by carotenoids.
Laminaria:
_____ is a type of brown algae.
Alternation of generations:
____ ___ ____ describes the life cycle of plants, fungi and protists. A multicellular diploid phase alternates with a multicellular haploid phase.
Archaeplastida:
______ is a monophyletic group that descended from ancient protist that engulfed a cyanobacterium.
Monophyletic:
pertaining to a grouping of species consisting of an ancestral species and all its descendants; a clade.
Land Plants:
Red and green algae are the closest relatives of ____ ____.
Chlorophytes and Charophytes:
____ and ____ are the two main groups of green algae.
Chlorophytes:
____ are unicellular organisms such as plankton.
Charophytes:
____ are the algae most closely related to land plants.
Amoebozoans:
____ are one of two major clades of Unikonts that include slime molds, gymnamoebas and entamoebas.
Entameobas:
____ are parasites; one species includes E. histolytica that causes amebic dysentery.
Opisthokonts:
____ are one of two major clades of Unikonts that includes animals, fungi and several groups of protists.
Producers:
_____ are organisms that use energy from light to convert carbon dioxide to organic compounds.