33 terms

Nervous System Vocabulary Review

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stimulus
any change or signal in the environment that an organism can recognize and react to
response
a reaction to a stimulus
neuron
cells that carry information through your nervous system
nerve impulse
the message that a neuron carries
dendrite
a branchlike structure that picks up nerve impulses
axon
the long structure leading away from the cell body of a neuron
nerve
a bundle of nerve fibers
sensory neuron
a neuron that picks up stimuli from the internal or external environment and converts each stimulus into a nerve impulse
interneuron
a neuron that carries nerve impulses from one neuron to another
motor neuron
a neuron that sends an impulse to a muscle or gland, causing the muscle or gland to react
synapse
the place where a neuron transfers an impulse to another structure
central nervous system
the division of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
the division of the nervous system consisting of all the nerves located outside the central nervous system
brain
the part of the central nervous system that is located in the skull and controls most functions of the body
spinal cord
a thick column of nervous tissue
cerebrum
a region of the brain that is divided into left and right sides and controls movement and carries out complex mental processes
cerebellum
a part of the brain at the back of the skull that coordinates muscle actions and helps maintain balance
brain stem
a structure that connects the brain and spinal column and controls your body's involuntary actions
somatic nervous system
the group of nerves in the peripheral nervous system that controls voluntary actions
autonomic nervous system
the group of nerves in the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary actions
reflex
an automatic response that occurs rapidly without conscious control
concussion
an injury in which the soft tissue of the brain bruises as it collides against the skull
cornea
the clear tissue that covers the front of the eye
pupil
the opening through which light enters the eye
iris
a circular structure that surrounds the pupil and regulates how much light enters the eye
lens
a flexible structure that focuses light
retina
the lining of the back of the eye, which contains light-sensitive cells
nearsightedness
a condition in which people see nearby objects clearly but not distant objects
farsightedness
a condition in which people see distant objects clearly but not nearby objects
eardrum
a membrane that vibrates when sound waves strike it
cochlea
a snail-shaped tube lined with sound receptor cells
semicircular canal
structures in the inner ear that help your central nervous system maintain your balance
taste bud
sensory receptors on the tongue that respond to chemical stimuli