SENSATION--PART 1

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Sensation
The process by which sensory systems (eyes, ears, and other sensory organs) and nervous system receive stimuli from our environment.
Bottom-Up Processing
Information processing that analyzes on the raw stimuli entering through the many sensory systems.
Perception
The process of organizing and interpreting incoming sensory information.
Top-Down Processing
Information processing that draws on expectations and experiences to interpret incoming sensory information
Threshold
An edge or a boundary
Absolute Threshold
The minimum amount of a stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus
Difference Threshold
The minimum amount of difference needed to detect that two stimuli are not the same
Signal Detection Theory
A theory that predicts how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background stimulation (noise).
Sensory Adaptation
Diminished sensitivity to constant and unchanging stimulation
Selective Attention
Focusing conscious awareness on a particular stimulus to the exclusion of others
Amplitude
The brightness of light as determined by height of the wave
Hue
The color of light as determined by the wavelength of the light energy
Electromagnetic Energy
An energy spectrum that includes X-rays, radar, and radio waves
Cornea
The clear, curved bulge on the front of the eye that bends light rays to begin focusing them
Iris
A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye and regulates the size of the pupil
Pupil
The adjustable opening in the center of the iris,
which controls the amount of light entering the eye
Lens
A transparent structure behind the pupil in the eye that changes shape to focus images on the retina
Retina
Light-sensitive surface at the back of the eyeball
Receptor Cells
Specialized cells in every sensory system of the body that can turn other different kinds of energy into action potentials (neural impulses) that the brain can process
Rods
Visual receptor cells located in the retina that can detect only black, white and gray
Cones
Visual receptor cells located in the retina that can detect sharp details and color
Fovea
The central focal point of the retina
Bipolar Cells
Gather information from the rods and cones and pass it on to the ganglion cells
Ganglion Cells
Pass the information from the bipolar cells through their axons
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