30 terms

Biology: 3.1, 3.2, & 3.3

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Biosphere
consists of all life on earth and all parts of the earth in which life exists, water, land, atmosphere; contains every organism; extends 8 kilometers above earth and 11 kilometers below earth
Ecology
scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their physical environment; study of natures houses
Economics
human houses; human interactions based on trade and money
Species
a group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
Population
a group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
Community
a gathering of different populations that lice together in a defined area
Ecosystem
all the organisms that line in a place together with their physical environment
Biome
a group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms
Biotic factor
any living part of the environment where an organism might interact, including animals, plants, bacteria; ex: tadpole eats algae, frog eats bug
Abiotic factor
nonliving part of an environment, water, sunlight, heat, soil, wind, etc.; ex. frog can be affected by water current
Autotrophs
use solar or chemical energy to produce food by assembling inorganic compounds into complex organic molecules; also called primary producers
Primary producers
the first producers of energy-rich compounds that are later used by other organisms
Chemosynthesis
chemical energy is used to produce carbohydrates
Photosynthesis
captures light energy to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates
Heterotrophs
acquire energy from other organisms; consumers
Consumers
rely on other organism for energy
Carnivores
kill and eat other animals
Herbivores
eat plants
Scavengers
eat carcasses of other dead animals
Omnivores
eat both plants and animals
Decomposers
"feed" by chemically breaking down organic matter
Detritivores
feed on detritus particles
Phytoplankton
base of every food chain
Food web
network of all food chains in an ecosystem
Zooplankton
small marine animals that feed on algae
Tropical level
each step in a food chain or web; producers make up first level, consumers make up higher levels
Ecological pyramid
diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each tropical level in a food chain or web
Pyramid of energy
show relative amounts of energy available at different trophic levels
Pyramid of biomass
show the total amount of living tissue at each trophic level
Pyramid of numbers
shows the relative numbers of organisms at different trophic levels