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70 terms

Anatomy of Phonation

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phonation
nonbiological function of the larynx
musculo
cartilage structure of larynx
larynx
sits on first tracheal ring, is covered by mucous membrane= epithelium + connective tissue
aryepiglottic folds
at the mouth of the larynx, go all the way around
ventricular folds (false)
constrict and subdivide the laryngeal cavity, not used for phonation
true vocal folds
constrict and subdivide the laryngeal cavity, used for phonation
aditus
also known as aditus laryngis, is the opening of the larynx from the pharynx
rima vestibuli
opening between the ventricular (false) folds
glottis
also known as rima glottis, opening between the true vocal folds
cavities of larynx
hollow chambers within the larynx
vestibule
space between the aditus and the ventricular (false) folds
atrium (subglottal)
space between the true vocal folds and the trachea
vallecula
valleys between base of tongue and epiglottis, food may get trapped in this area
pyriform sinus
grooves that are on either side of the aditus, redirect fluids around the aditus
hyoid bone
"U" shaped bone suspended from skull
thyroid cartilage
large shield shaped cartilage
cricoid cartilage
only cartilage that completly circles the larynx, seen in all views
arytenoid cartilage
small pyramid shaped cartilage with muscle attachments
muscular process
attachment of intrinsic laryngeal muscles
vocal process
attachment of vocal ligament and muscles
corniculate cartilages
small tips of the arytenoids
cuneiform cartilages
small cartilages at rim of aditus
triticeal cartilage
small cartilages in the throhyoid ligament
epiglottis
large spoon or heart shaped cartilage
hyaline cartilage components
cricoid cartilage, thyroid cartilage, arytenoid cartilages. all can ossify with age
elastic cartilage components
apex of arytenoid cartilages, corniculate cartilages, epiglottis. does not ossify with age
rocking
modifies tension on vocal folds
gliding
adduction/abduction of vocal folds (entire vocal fold)
rotation
adduction/abduction of only posterior 1/3 of vocal folds
cricothyroid joint
flexion/extension of joint modifies tension on vocal folds
quadrangular membrane
fibroelastic mucous membrane that lines the vestibule, PCCE, forms ventricular(false) fold at lower margin
conus elasticus
fibroelastic mucous membrane that lines the atrium, STSE and PCCE, forms the true vocal folds at upper margin
intrinsic ligaments
lateral and medial cricothyroid ligaments, cricoarytenoid ligaments
epithelium
mostly PCCE, STSE at vocal folds
lamina propria
elastic and fibrous connective tissue
superficial layer
elastic fibers reticular pattern cushions the folds
intermediate layer
elastic fibers anterior to posterior
deep layer
collagen arranged posterior to anterior
extrinsic laryngeal muscles
muscles that have one attachment (origin) located outside of the larynx. insertion inside larynx
intrinsic laryngeal muscles
muscles that have both sites of attachment located in the larynx
sensory nerves
carry information about pain, and position
motor nerves
carry directions for muscles and glands
vocal attack
adduction of the vocal folds into the airstream to start phonation, also known as glottic attack
simultaneous vocal attack
expiration and adduction occur at the same instant
breathy vocal attack
expiration occurs before the vocal fold adduction
glottal attack
expiration is started after vocal fold adduction
sustained phonation
long periods of phonation resulting from sustained adduction of the vocal folds
register
mode of vibration during sustained phonation
termination of phonation
abduction of the vocal folds to remove the folds from the airstream
articulation
modification of vibrational sounds using the resonating chamber and tongue
muscular activity
interactions amoung intrinsic laryngeal muscles
vocal frequencies
number of glottal cycles per second
male
130 cycles per second
female
260 cycles per second
bernouli effect
as air velocity increases in a space, air pressure decreases
fundamental frequency
the average pitch sustained over long periods of conversation
optimal pitch
vocal fold vibration most appropriate for an individual
pitch range
range of frequencies an individual can produce
intensity
loudness of sounds produced, caused by increased pressure
whisper
not a mode of phonation, no voicing occurs
breathy
vocal folds are inadequately adducted, air rushes through opening and give the voice a "breathy" quality
creaky (vocal fry)
"I'm sick" voice. Known as strohbass. voice of low pitch with a crackly quality to it, product of low subglottal pressure
cricothyroid (recta and oblique)
both increase the distance between arytenoid and thyroid cartilages. Raise pitch.
thyroarytenoid (thyrovocalis portion)
increases vocal fold tension. Raises pitch.
posterior cricoarytenoid
prevents anterior sliding of the arytenoids. Aids above two to raise pitch.
laryngeal elevators
raise larynx, and raise pitch
laryngeal depressors
lower larynx and pitch
pharyngeal constrictors
decrease laryngeal cross sectional diameter, and raise pitch.
sternothyroid
rocks thyroid forward and down, increasing tension on vocal fold. Raise pitch.
geniohyoid, anterior digastric, thyrohyoid
tilt thyroid upward, relaxing tension on vocal folds. Lowers pitch.