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Gene Expression

the activation of a gene that results in the formation and production of mRNA


the complete genetic material contained in an individual

Structural Gene

genes that code for polypeptides


a DNA segment that serves as a kind of "switch" by controlling the access of RNA polymerase to the promoter


a series of genes that code for specific products and the regulatory elements that control these genes

Lac Operon

a gene system whose operator gene and three structural genes control lactose metabolism in E. coli

Repressor Protein

a protein that inhibits genes from being expressed

Regulator Gene

a regulatory protein that binds to an operator an dblocks transcription of the gene of an operator


a molecule that initiates gene expression


the site of active transcription of DNA to RNA a region of DNA that is uncoiled and undergoing active transcription into RNA


a segment of a structural gene that is transcribed but not translated


sequence of nucleotides on a gene that gets transcribed and translated

Pre- mRNA

form of messenger RNA that contains both introns and extrons

Transcription Factor

regulatory proteins in eukaryotes that binds to DNA and stimulates the transcription of certian genes


a DNA sequence that recognizes certain transcription factors that can stimulate transcription of nearby genes

Cell Differentiation

the process by which a cell becomes specialized for a specific structure or function

Homeotic Gene

a gene that controls the development of a specific adult structure


a DNA sequence within a homeotic gene that regulates development in animals

Proto- Oncogene

A gene that regulates normal cell division but that can become a cancer causing oncogene as a result of mutation or recombination


a gene that induces cancer, or uncontrolled cell proliferation


a growth that arises from normal tissue but that grows abnormally in rate and structure and lacks a function


a tumor in which the cells begin dividing at an uncontrolled rate and become invasive

Tumor- Suppressor Gene

a gene that suppresses tumor formation but that, when mutated, causes a loss in cell function, which results in tumor formation


the spread of cancer cells beyond their original site of growth


a cancer-causing substance


a malignant tumor that grows in the skin or in the tissues that line organs


a malignant tumor that grows in bone or muscle tissue


a tumor in the lymphoid tissues


a progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs

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