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Great Migration Study Guide
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Terms in this set (34)
Civil War Dates
13, 14, and 15 amendments to US Constitution adopted between 1865 and 1870 the five years immediately following the Civil War.
(proposed and ratified in 1865) abolished slavery
(proposed in 1866 and ratified in 1868) provided broad definition of citizenship to include all males formerly enslaved.
(Proposed in 1869 and ratified in 1870) granted voting rights regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude
The attempts of White supremacists in the South to "redeem" the south by creating a socially repressive system against Black people and sympathetic Whites. Characterized by violence by organizations such as the KKK.
A system of contracted labor in which a landowner contracts with a worker to live on the property and have a share in the crop. pretty much a way for white people to maintain an economic monopoly over black people by keeping them in a constant state of debt. Part of redemption.
Jim Crow was originally a minstrel show in which a white actor put on blackface makeup and pretended to be the "black" man Jim Crow. Extremely racist and made a fool of black people. legally a system of formal segregation between whites and colored people
A series of laws that were unspoken but still recognized throughout the South. They were created with the intent of socially repressing Black People and White sympathizers throughout the south. They were enforced by secret organizations like the KKK.
Plessy Vs. Ferguson
1896. Upheld the constitutionality of racial segregation even in public accomodations, under the doctrine of "separate but equal". Plessy arrested during train ride for failing to move to "colored" car per Louisiana law and his 1/8 African heritage. Ruled in favor of Ferguson. Overruled by Brown vs. Board, 1954.
Separate Car Act
In the state of Louisiana, this act divided train cars into a white section and a black section. Challenged and upheld in Plessy v. Ferguson.
Separate but Equal
Supreme Court doctrine established in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson. Allowed state-required racial segregation in places of public accommodation as long as the facilities were equal.
Immediate impact of Plessy vs. Ferguson
Immediately public facilities in the South are segregated ex: public bathrooms, waterfountains, parks, recreational facilities, and schools
Atlanta Compromise Speech
-speech given by Booker T Washington at Atlanta Exposition in 1895 which expressed his philosophy
-rather than fighting for rights, African Americans should seek economic progress and show worthy of rights. Relevant to Jim Crow because Jim Crow laws took away black civil rights and Atlanta Compromise Speech called for Black people to voluntarily give up their civil rights
A normal and industrial school led by Booker T. Washington in Tuskegee, Alabama. It focused on training young black students in agriculture and the trades to help them achieve economic independence. Washington justified segregated, vocational training as a necessary first step on the road to racial equality, although critics accused him of being too "accomodationist". Relevant to Jim Crow because it is a segregated school but it still was seen as threatening by educated whites.
Wilmington Riot of 1898
A coup d'etat by a mob of white southern democrats in Wilmington that ousted the local republican government and destroyed the thriving Black Community. Organized by local Newspapers and NC Democratic Party.
Characteristics of a Riot
Spontaneous uncontrolled outbreak of mob violence
Why the Wilmington Riot was not a Riot
The "Riot" was really a well ordered mob of white supremacists that ousted the local government and put in place their own officials. Making it the only Coup d'etat in US history. Because it was organized by the newspapers and Democrats it was not a riot. It was called a riot by the same newspapers that organized the coup.
Significance of Wilmington Riots
Before the riots Wilmington was seen as a place where white and Black citizens could live in relative harmony, there where even Black police officers and firemen. After the riot a shocked Black community found themselves in an oppressive situation of complete racial segregation. This was the first and only Coup d'etat in USA and was planned and covered up by local newspapers.
movement of southern, rural blacks to northern cities starting around 1915 and continuing through much of the twentieth century; blacks left the South as the cotton economy declined and Jim Crow persisted. Thousands came north for wartime jobs in large cities during World Wars I and II.
Push factors of the Great Migration
Less Jobs, 1915 Boll Weevil infestation, Racial Violence New Farm Machinery pushed many black sharecroppers off of farms.
Pull factors of the Great Migration
Jobs, less legal segregation new sense of citizenship. , better jobs, voting rights, better education, less racism, more freedom
black newspaper by Robert S. Abbott that was brought by train to the South Implored blacks to come North for jobs, Largest black weekly circulating newspaper, gave opinoins throughout the trials-in terms of defense, the opinion it gave was that all blacks should work together, NAACP, communist, whatever. Great migration!
Realities of Great Migration
Menial Jobs, exclusion from Labor Unions, refusal of employment, fringe jobs, segregated housing, and brutality equal to that of the south.
Red Summer of 1919
Used to describe the bloody race riots that occurred during the summer and autumn of 1919. In Chicago Eugene Williams a black kid who floated on a piece of driftwood over to the "white" beach was stoned and drowned. Police is called but arrest a black man setting massive riots throughout the city. Set off race riots between white and black people across chicago that eventually spread throughout the North. In Chicago after 6 days of rioting 23 Blacks were killed 15 whites were killed 537 injuries and 1,000 people were left homeless.
Significance of Red Summer of 1919
United Black Community because before riots north and southern blacks were separate from each other because northerners didn't want to lose their social standing if they were being associated with southern blacks when whites attacked all Black people this caused them to fight together and unified them. This was the first time that Black People actually fought back against white racial violence and gave black people a sense of pride.
Born in Jamaica . In 1918 he began publishing the Negro World containing his viewpoint. published in French, English, and Spanish regarded as subversive by white authorities. In 1914 Garvey founded the UNIA based on pan-africanism UNIA made symbols their own like making Black Cross nurses at a 1920 convention he declared himself Provisional President of Africa even though he wasn't from Africa nor in Africa at the time and Africa is not a country. Founded Black Star Lines that were supposed to bring black people from the world back to Africa. Got people to buy bonds for the Line which eventually failed due to lack of administration. Eventually lost black support after trying to meet with kkk leaders who supported back to Africa for black people. Eventually forced to disband UNIA and Black Star LIne and ended up deported to Jamaica.
Booker T. Washington
Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book "Up from Slavery."
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910 ounded the crisis and was the editor of it and represented the viewpoint of northern Blacks
The first to give african americans a public forum for addressing civil rights and other issues. He started the first black newspaper, The Chicago Defender. Exaggerated life in South as terrible and claimed the the North was great.
Ida B. Wells
the lynching of blacks outraged her, an african american journalist. in her newspaper, free speech, wells urged african americans to protest the lynchings. She published in her newspaper the reality that many lynchings of black men were for them having consensual relations with white women and not just rape
Ku Klux Klan
a secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights
(Harlem is a section of NY city) African American soldier in the 39th Infantry Regiment. They were eager to fight, were loaned to the French Army and distinguished themselves greatly. Most African Americans were used for labor or menial tasks only
Graduating from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1884, he advanced to become the highest-ranking black in the U.S. Army in 1918. Didn't let the man keep him down.
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