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FP Chp 1
Terms in this set (21)
applying psych to a task faced by the legal system. It consists of human behavior realted to legal process such as eyewitness memory and testimony, jury decision making and criminal behavior.
Forensic psychologist who do court ordered child custody, who work in prisions or with the law enforcement come from
a background in clinical psychology.
Forensic psychologist that specialize in eyewitness reliability, trail consultants that help with jury selection or pretrial effects normally come from
a background in experimental, social, cognitive or developmental psychology.
What questions do developmental psychology help to answer?
Following a divorce, which kind of custody arrangement will promote healthy development of the child? Can a child who commits a murder fully appreciate the nature and consequences of his/her crime?
What questions do social Psychology help to answer?
How do police interrogators make use of principles of coercion and persuasion to induce suspects to confess to a crime? Do the group dynamics of juries influence their verdict decisions?
What questions do clinical Psychology help to answer?
How can we decide whether or not a mentally ill person is competent to stand trial? is it possible to predict whether a mentally ill person will become violent in the future?
What questions do cognitive Psychology help to answer?
How accurate is the testimony of eyewitnesses? Under what conditions are eyewitnesses able to remember what they saw?
sought to understand the causes of crime (from a biological perspective). The father of criminiology.
Where was the first juvinille court?
a physician, who began a program devoted to understanding the causes of juvenile delinquency. He founded the Juvenile Psychopathic Institute in 1909.
cautioned Austrian judges that their decisions were influenced by unconscious processes. Also claimed that insights from his theory could be used to understand criminal behavior and improve the legal system
John Henry Wigmore
suggested that experimental psychology lacked enough knowledge to be practical and that the jury system distrusted those outside interferences that intruded upon their commonsense judgments.
Munsterberg's goals for psychology and the law
Raising the position of the psychological profession to one of importance in public life
The central premise of Munsterberg's legal psychology was that
the individual could not accurately judge the real world that existed outside him, or for that matter the nature and processes of his own mind" (Hale, 1980, p. 121).
when one genuinely believes what he/she is saying.
What were Munsterberg's 3 crucial activites
Demonstrated the fallibility of memory including time overestimation, omission of significant information, published On the Witness Stand (1908) and offered testimony as an expert witness in highly publicized trials
human creations that evolve out of the need to resolve disagreements. They are created, amended, or discarded because society has established standards for what is acceptable and unacceptable behavior
standards for decision making
Psychologists are trained to answer questions about human behavior by
collecting data. Conclusions aren't accepted until they're shown to be reliable and able to be replicated.
Lawyers and judges are more willing to
rely on their own experience, their own perspectives, and their intuition or "gut feelings"
Social science research has had an impact on the legal system, as evidenced by
the Muller v. Oregon case, in which lawyer Louis Brandeis (who later became a Supreme Court Justice) filed his famous "Brandeis Brief."
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