EENS - Ecology
Terms in this set (89)
fossil fuels, forest fires, (burning matter, smog)
fossil fuels, volcanoes, forest fires, dust (burning matter, smog)
fossil fuels, refining petroleum, production of paper, cement and aluminum, volcanoes
fossil fuels, forest fires
fuels, forest fires
fossil fuels, volcanoes, forest fires
(too much co2 contributes to global warming)
what can happen to people that regularly use fire and wood for cooking?
-breathe in the ozone and particulate matter
-increases health risks for ppl
What is Easter island and who first arrived on it?
- volcanic island
what happened to the resources on easter island?
- polynesians used all of there resources to build and move statues and were unable to survive
- increase in soil erosion when trying to transition to agriculture to survive
- there were 21 species of trees but by the time european settlers arrived those were all gone
A field of applied ethics that considers the moral basis of environmental responsibility and the appropriate extent of this responsibility
EX: is it moral... should we...?
- deforested regions are in red
- in the US 10% remain (we've removed 90% of the forest in US)
What do we see from an air planes view? what percentage?
- agricultural land
- 40% of land on our planet has been converted to agricultural land to feed us
What is the issue with sharks?
- about 100 million sharks are killed for their fins every year
- only chop off fins and let the sharks go, fins are used for soup
- unsustainable for ecosystem
why should we care about the shark issue?
- sharks rule in the ecosystem
- The ocean's ecosystem is vital for land
- Makes ppl question whether humans have the right to remove sharks
How do sharks play a role in the existence or coral reefs?
2) large fish (grouper)
3) parrot fish
4) algae off of coral reefs
what would happen to coral reefs if sharks became extinct
- the decrease in parrot fish causes in increase in algae.
- the coral reefs cant grow and would die because they are covered in too much algae
- one of the only corals reefs in the US
- third largest barrier reef in the world
Ecosystem services definition
Services provided by natural systems that benefit humans:
1) Support biodiversity
2) Provide food, materials, and recreation
3) Improve air and water quality
what is the value of what it would cost humans to take over the work that other life provides for us?
- estimate $16 - $54 trillion per year
- however, it really is priceless because we cannot replace what life does for us
Types of ecosystem services
2) Regulation and Maintenance
nutritional, material, and energetic outputs from living systems, that can be exchanged, traded, consumed, or used by people for manufacutring
paraphrase: outputs created by organisms and used by people
Regulation and maintenance
Ways in which living organisms mediate or moderate the environment, which affects human performance
paraphrase: things that organisms do for us that make life liveable
The non-material, usually consumptive, outputs of ecosystems that affect people's physical and mental states
paraphrase: things that the ecosystem does for us that improve quality of life
Louisiana and coastal land loss
Louisiana is losing its coastal wet lands at a rate of 34 sq miles per year
from human activity and extraction of oil and gas in coastal lousianna
effects of coastal land loss
1) loss of wet lands - hurricanes could get worse
2) the protection that these wet lands provide against hurricans will be loss - they provide a buffer between the gulf of mexico and lousianna
Study of how people use their limited resources to try to satisfy unlimited wants
Externalities of economics
1) The effects of a firm that does not have to pay all the costs associated with its production
2) Producer does not pay full costs of production
Strategies for pollution control
1) Command and control
2) Incentive-based regulations
3) Emission charge
4) Tradable permits
5) Cap and trade
What is command and control?
- gov't imposes a particular soultion on an industry
- market based soultions to comand and control
EX: environmental protection agency regulates pollution by maybe developing a device that helps remove co2 from coal burning power plants. Then the EPA requres that all power plants have that device.
Cap and trade
a government-mandated, market-based approach to controlling pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants.
Unsued allowance (cap)
Excess Emissions (cap)
Interdisiplinary study of the interactions of organisms with one another and their environment
part of earth's atmosphere and lithosphere that supports life
large-scale interacting system of organisms and their environment
a group of species that live in the same area at the same time
environment where a species or organism lives
the role of a species in its environment
what is a species?
- not a single definition, there are multiple species concepts.
- a fundamental unit of classifcation
7) Genetic species
Which of the species concepts is the best?
Evolutionary species concept
What is the evolutionary species concept?
- A lineage evolving separately from others and with its own unitary evolutionary role and tendencies.
Biological species concept
- defines species in terms of interbreeding.
- most widely accepted concept
an array of populations which are actually or potentially interbreeding, and which are reproductively isolated from other such groups"
Morphological species concept
- Characterizes a species by body shape and other structural features
-"a diagnosable cluster of individuals within which there is a pattern of ancestry and descent, and beyond which there is not."
- A series of populations that vary along a cline where similiar populations interbreed
- but the two populations at the end of the cline are too different to naturally reproduce
Can a biologist determine a species based on its repoductive capabilites? (Yes or No)
What is energy?
- The capacity to do work
- All life functions require energy
What are the forms of energy?
1) Radiant (electromagnetic)
2) Chemical (bonds of molecules)
4) Thermal (heat)
First law of thermodynamics
1) Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed from one form to another
First law of thermodynamics: in relation to organisms
1) Organism may take energy (or release) from its surroundings, but energy of system is constant
2) Organisms must take energy to function
First law of thermodynamics: in relation to plants
Plants use photosynthesis to convert radiant energy from the sun to chemical energy in sugar
Second law of thermodynamics
- Entropy (disorder) in a closed system increases through time
-Measure of disorder
-Measure of energy unavailable to do work
what happens to energy in the Second law of thermodynamics?
When energy is transformed from one state to another, some energy is lost to the environment as heat
Process that converts solar energy to chemical energy to use for making organic material from inorganic matter
when did photosynthesis begin?
1) 3.8 billion years ago
- organisms use inorganic compounds as a source of energy
- an alternative way to acquire energy without photosynthesis
The movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction
Oxidation of glucose releases energy to synthesize other cellular materials and build new tissue
Why is respiration important for organisms?
Photosynthetic organisms must also respire to grow and reproduce
Chemical reaction in respiration
Chemical energy released during respiration is stored in the form of high-energy chemical bonds in the molecule ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
Organisms that produce biomass from inorganic matter
- make their own food, Photosynthesizers
EX: plants, algae
- Organisms that feed on primary producers
EX: Herbivores, zooplankton, sea urchins, snails, sea turtles
Organisms that eat primary consumers
- carnivores eat herbivores
EX: Spiders, frogs, wolves, lions, Clams, snails, crustaceans, fishes
- Organisms that eat secondary consumers
- carnivores eat other carnivores
- Polar bears, sharks, orca
Break down dead organisms by absorbing the organic molecules
EX: Bacteria, Fungi
Type of decomposer that Ingests dead organisms
EX: Insects, Worms, Mollusks, Crustaceans
(top to bottom)
-Factors that set upper limits to the amount of biomass that can be produced
Limiting factors in the environment
Some nutrients are scarce in some parts of the environment or during certain times of year as cells absorb nutrients more quickly than they are replaced
what do limiting factors effect?
Environmental factors also affect the abundance, distribution, and growth of organisms (e.g., light intensity, temperature)
Biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen through the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere
- most important limiting nutrient in the oceans
what percentage of the atmosphere does nitrogen make up?
makes up 78% of the atmosphere and dissolves readily in water
Nitrogen fixing bacteria
- increases the nitrogen content in the soil
process whereby nitrogen (N2) is converted into ammonium (NH4+) by nitrogen fixers
What do nitrogen fixers do?
Nitrogen fixers transform ammonium into cellular components like amino acids and proteins
what happens when nitrogen fixers die or excrete?
they release dissolved organic nitrogen (DON)
what happens to the organic matter during the nitrogen cycle?
The organic matter from phytoplankton primary production sinks to deeper water as mostly particulate matter
Deep-water bacteria oxidize ammonia to nitrite. Followed by the oxidization of nitrite to nitrate.
Bacteria in bottom sediments convert nitrate back to molecular nitrogen
nitrate is reduced and ultimately produces molecular nitrogen (N2) through a series of intermediate gaseous nitrogen oxide products.
Biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus through the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere
what happens during the phosphorus cycle?
Dissolved phosphate (PO4)3-is derived from weathering of rocks and is also released from deep sea vents
where is phosphorus recycled most rapidly?
recycled rapidly in marine environments
where are the highest concentrations of phosphorus?
Highest concentrations in deep water
temperature as a limiting factor
- Change in growth rates (Higher temperatures cause higher rates of growth)
- Affects physiology and metabolism
- Biological reaction rates increase with increasing temperature
-The solubility of oxygen and carbon dioxide decreases with increasing temperature
-Concentrations of calcium carbonate increase with increasing water temperature
What are some variations of temperature?
- Stable in marine environments due to heat capacity of water
-Varies with latitude and depth
- Tropics warmer than the poles
Oxygen as a limiting factor
Essential for cellular respiration in animals
what are the marine oxygen conditions?
Aerobic, Dysaerobic, Anaerobic (oxygen is insufficient for animal respiration)
Salinity as a limiting factor
- solubility of oxygen is highest in warm water
Measured as total dissolved salts per volume of seawater
Depth as a limiting factor
- Temperature, Oxygen, Carbonate concentration, Light decreases with depth
- Nutrients increase w depth
- Abundance and diversity decline with increasing depth
- sand, shell, mud
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