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Terms in this set (41)
4 instances that alter blood viscosity
polycythemia (increase RBC)
dehydration (decrees H2O)
leukemia (increase WBc)
hyperproteinemia (increase proteins)
increasing the length of a blood vessel has what effect on resistance?
increase resistance, thus decrease blood flow
increasing viscosity has what effect on resistance/blood flow?
increase R and Decrease flow
increase radius leads to ______ on resistance and __ on blood flow
decrease resistance and increase blood flow
all three increase
decrease Aortic complain
SP= no change
DP increases (due to reduced runoff)
increase peripheral resistance
SP no change
this is example of constricting arterioles so the pressure in arteries would increase while pressure in ventricles decreases making it harder for blood to leave the arteries
overall the trend of SV and aortic compliance mainly affect _____pressure and HR and Peripheral resistance mainly affect ____pressure
three factors that may contribute to hypertension
excess fluid ( due to salt or fluid volume)
primary hypertension vs secondary
primary is idiopathic, and is most cases. can be due to salt or fluid retention. secondary is associated with second condition such as adrenal tumor, or renal artery stenosis.
big picture: what happens to venous return if TPR is increased?
TPR increases, the arterioles are constricted, causing back flow (increase P in aorta and arteries) while decreasing the pressure of anything afterwards (the capillaries) This decreases venous return.
most organs have what sort of blood vessel arrangement? why?
parallel because low overall resistance.
what are three organs responsible for largest effect on total resistance ?
kidneys, splanchnic beds (intestines liver), skeletal muscle,
these have stalled individual resistance which has the greatest effect on total resistance. they have the largest diameter
what does a change in position do to venous return? for example standing after laying down causes?
sympathetic output will decrease venous compliance in attempt to increase venous return to heart,
a low CVP has what effect on venous return?
decreases venous return butis necessary for emptying lymph into veins. ranges from 3-8 mmHg. if too hight, can impede lymphatic return causing edema
inspiration results in lung volume ____ and lung pressure _____. this favors what?
lung volume increases and pressure decreases. this favors a pressure gradients that aids in return of blood from periphery to the thorax and heart. valves prevent back flow during expiration.
three causes of Pulmonary edema
high pulmonary wedge pressure
lung inflammation or injury
increase in HR leaves more or less time for diastole and filling of the heart?
leaves less time
High CVP is a result of
right heart failure, excessive blood volume and impedes lympathic return
high Pulmonary wedge pressure (PWP) results from
abnormally high filtration pressure at pulmonary capillaries
-result of Left heart failure.
ARDS (acute resp. distress syndrome) lung capillaries become leaky allowing proteins to escape into ISF which increase the interstitial colloid osmotic pressure.
pulmonary can kill patients because it prevents what from occurring?
oxygenation of RBC because can't diffuse oxygen from alveoli to pulmonary capillaries
which two don't belong with the others?NE, Epi, angiotensin, ADH, Acetylcholine, ADH, PGF alpha, Prostaglandin E2, Thromboxane,
acetylcholine, E@, which are dilators
PGF 2 alpha
histamines, bradykinin, ACh, E2, I2, NO
location of baroreceptors? they share their location with what other receptors?
carotid sinus, aortic arch. shared with peripheral chemoreceptors
what increases output of baroreceptors
what increases output of central chemoreceptors?
Low ISF pH (high H+ ions)
what increase output of peripheral chemoreceptors
high H+ concentrations (acidosis)
what increases output of atrial stretch receptors
increase in BV causes increase in BV
main effect of chemoreceptors
initiate ventilation, stipulates vasoconstrictor center cause constriction of arterioles in skeletal muscle, renal, splanchnic capillary beds,
increases TPR overall.
main effect of baroreceptors upon stimulation
increase in AP frequency sent to CV center in medulla.
CV increases PSNP and decreases SNS and vasoconstriction center.
main effect of ANP release from atria as a result of stretching
vasodilation and decrease TPR.
who does ANP restore body to homeostasis
cause increase blood flow that leads kidneys to increase water and sodium excretion. this lowers overall blood volume.
whats the effect of chemoreceptors in restoring homestatsis
blood flow redirected form periphery to brain and coronal circulation to protect brain and cardiac muscle.
three local controls of BP and flow?
myogenic, NO, and metabolic regulation
myogenic response relies on what sort of channels ?
stretch activated calcium channels. allow for contraction of smooth muscle of blood vessels which constrict to maintain constant blood flow when pressure increases
NO produced by what enzyme?
NOS (NO synthase)
what stimulates NO production
blood velocity, shear stress, hypoxia, presence of ACH, histamine, bradykinin, etc. occurs in endothelial cells.
what enzyme does NO work on to allow relaxation of VSM?
Recommended textbook explanations
Introduction to Electrodynamics
David J. Griffiths
Physics for the IB Diploma Coursebook
K. A. Tsokos, Mark Headlee, Peter Hoeben
John R. Taylor
Fundamentals of Physics
Halliday, Resnick, Walker
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