98 terms

botany vocabulary

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node
the part of the stem where a leaf is or was attached
internode
the part of the stem between two nodes
axil
the point of attachment of a leaf and stem
bud
an external meristem found on stems, often in axils
stipule
a pair of leaflike or scale-like appendages located on either side of the base of a leaf
stipel
a pair of leaflike or scale-like appendages located on either side of the base of a leaflet
leaf complexity
simple, pinnately compound, bipinnately compound, palmately compound, trifoliate
leaf arrangement (disposition)
basal, cauline, alternate, opposite, whorled
basal
having leaves at he base of the plant, leaves are generally attached to the underground stem or rhizome. leaves appear to rise directly from the ground
cauline
having leaves attached to the aerial stem
whorled
having three or more leaves arising form the same node and symmetrically placed around the stem
leaf attachment
petiolate, sessile, perfoliate, sheathing
petiolate
a leaf attached to the stem by a distinct petiole or stalk
sessile
a leaf blade which is directly against the stem with no evident petiole
perfoliate
a sessile leaf with the stem passing through or appearing to pierce the blade
sheathing
a leaf blade or petiole that is prolonged and wrapped around the stem
needle-like
linear, pointed leaves (pines)
scale-like
small, flat or succulent triangular leaves with no differentiation between blade and petiole
linear
a long and narrow leaf with parallel sides, typically longer than broad
oblong
a rounded, rectangular shape with shape with sides parallel, typically longer than broad
lanceolate
spearhead shaped, widest towards the base and tapered to a long tip
oblanceolate
most narrow at the base and widening towards the apex the inverse of a lanceolate late
ovate
shaped like and egg, leaf widest near the base
obovate
an upside down egg; inverse of ovate, leaf widest at the top
orbicular
round near to as long as broad
reniform
kidney shaped
elliptic
broadest at middle-narrower at either end
entire
a smooth margin with no teeth or lobes
crenate
a margin with rounded teeth, without sharp points
serrate
a margin with sharp teeth bent forward like the teeth of a circular saw blade
dentate
a margin with rectangular teeth pointed perpendicular to the leaf margin
pinnately lobed
lobed along both sides of the long axis of a leaf
palmately lobed
lobed radiated from the petiole or common point of attachment
acute
a pointed leaf tip forming an angle of less than 90 degrees
acuminate
tapered to a long drawn out point
obtuse
a blunt leaf tip forming, an angle of more than 90 degrees
rounded
a very smooth, continuous leaf tip
mucronate
having a small abrupt point at the leaf tip
truncate
appearing to be cut straight across at the tip, ending as if cut straight across with a pair of scissors
acuminate
tapered to a long drawn out base
cordate
heart-shaped at the base; shallowly notched
oblique
a leaf base which is slanted across the plane of the petiole so that it is unequal on each side
hastate
having two drawn out tips extending from the extremities generally pointed outward so as to form a shape similar to the base of an arrowhead
sagittate
similar to hastate, but with lobes pointed inward
peltate
shaped like an umbrella, the petiole is attached to the inside of the leaf margin, leaf blades of this type are typically orbicular
surface features (vestiture)
glabrous, pubescent, scabrous, glandular, glaucous
glabrous
smooth, no trichomes
pubescent
a surface with trichomes
scabrous
a rough leaf surface which feels like sandpaper to the touch, the roughness is caused by short stout trichomes
glandular
pubescent with trichomes typically with glands at their tip, often sticky
glaucous
a waxy layer on a leaf that is thick enough to color the stem or leaf with a white or bluish bloom
herb
a plant that dies back to the ground each year, no permanent wood development
shrub
a plant that forms wood and does not typically die back to the ground each year, typically applied to woody plants less than 20' tall at maturity and typically with more than one growth axis (stem) "clumping'
tree
a plant that forms wood and does not die back to the ground each year
succulent
typically an adaption to xeric or salty environments, stems and leaves are swollen with fluids like an Aloe plant
vine
a plant which has a stem that does not support itself but climbs or trails on some other support
tap root
a central primary root that extends vertically into the soil, typical of many annual species
fibrous root
thing roots arising along larger roots or from stems or modified stems
adventitious root
a root that originates from a leaf or stem that is not typical of root placement, many trailing species do this
rhizome
an underground horizontal stem that typically spreads extensively from the point of aerial stem production
stolon
a horizontal stem at just about the ground, typically slender
bulb
a short vertical underground stem with thick, fleshy storage leaves
corm
a solid, vertical underground stem without fleshy storage leaves
tuber
a horizontal, underground, solid, enlarged stem with leaves absent
indeterminate inflorescence
an inflorescence in which the flowers start blooming from the bottom to the top or from the periphery to the center
determinate inflorescence
an inflorescence in which the flowers bloom from the top to the bottom or from the center to the periphery
bract
a leaf-like structure at the base of a flower or inflorescence
involucre
a whorl of bracts subtending a flower or inflorescence
pedicel
stalk of a single flower in an inflorescence
peduncle
stalk of a solitary flower or of an inflorescence
spathe
large bract or pair of bracts enclosing an inflorescence
spike
an elongated, unbranched, indeterminate inflorescence with sessile flowers
spikelet
a small spike characteristic of grasses and sedges
raceme
an elongate, unbranched, indeterminate inflorescence with pedicelled flowers
panicle
a branched raceme
corymb
a flat-topped raceme with elongate pedicels reaching the same level
compound corymb
a branched corymb
umbel
a flat-topped or rounded inflorescence with the pedicels originating from a common point
compound umbel
a branched umbel
capitulum
a dense vertically compressed inflorescence with sessile flowers on a receptacle and subtended by an involucre of phyllaries, characteristic of the Asteraceae.
follicle
has a single carpel that slits along one seam to release seeds
legume
resembles a follicle except that legumes split along two seams. restricted to fabaceae family
dehiscent fruit
dry fruit that splits at maturity to shed seeds
indehiscent fruit
dry fruit that does not split at maturity
septicidal capsule
fruit splits along the seems between carpels
loculicidal capsule
fruit split within carpels
poricidal capsule
fruits that forms caps or pores at the top from which the seeds are released
achene
a single seeded fruit in which the seed is connected to the pericarp only at the base
samara
like an achene but a portion of the pericarp develops into a wing
caryopsis (grain)
similar to an achene but the pericarp os firmly united to seed and often indistinguishable from it. example: corn, rice, wheat
nut
have a very large seed and a thick, hard wall. example: walnut, hickory, acorn
berry
the entire pericarp is fleshy, although the skin is sometimes though; the seeds are embedded within the fleshy pulp
hesperidium
similar to a berry but with a thick leathery rind full of oil glands. The juicy pulpy endocarp is arranged in sections. includes citrus fruits
pepo
similar to a berry but with a thick rind or exocarp. includes cucurbitaceae's (cucumber family)
drupe
similar to a berry but has a hard endocarp often called a pit which is typically attached to a single seed. examples: cherry, olive, peach, plum
pome
resemble a berry but the bulk of the fleshy fruit comes from an enlarged receptacles that forms from the swollen end of the peduncle or pedicel. examples: apples, pears
aggregate fleshy fruits
derived from one flower that has many separate carpels. each carpel becomes a tiny fruit resulting in multiple "fruitlets" attached to a single receptacle. example: strawberries
multiple fruits
develop from the carpels of many separate flowers within a single inflorescence. example: pineapple, fig

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