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actus reus

guilty act

adversarial system/process

wo-sided structure under which the American criminal trial courts operate that pit's the prosecution against the defense.

direct appeal

when the consequences of error are so significant that appellate courts are mandated to review them as in capital punishment sentences.

discretionary appeal

filed by the appellant based on specific errors in the case.

interlocutory appeal

when a judge's decision so impacts the case in progress that to wait until the end of the trial until the end would significantly violate or damage the case.


an unlawful physical attack on a person, whether aggravated or simple, & includes attempted assaults with or without a weapon, but still excludes rape and attacks involving theft or attempted theft


the money or property pledged to the court or actually deposited with the court to effect the release of a person from legal custody

capital punishment

the most extreme of all sentencing options. The death penalty


the number of probation or parole clients assigned to one probation or parole officer for supervision

change of venue

the change of setting during a trial.


can result when law enforcement authorities believe they know whom the perpetrator of a crime is, but cannot make an arrest

concurrent sentencing

two or more sentences imposed at the same time for more than one offense and to be served at the same time

consecutive sentencing

two or more sentences imposed at the same time, which are served in sequence with the other sentence(s)

corpus delicti

"the body of the crime". The facts that show that a crime has occurred

criminal justice system

aggregate of all operating and administrative or technical support agencies that perform criminal justice functions

deadly force

force likely to cause death or great bodily harm


a juvenile who has been adjudged by a judicial officer of a juvenile court to have committed a delinquent act

direct evidence

used to prove a fact without having to make an inference; eyewitness testimony accounts for the majority of all direct evidence


the ability of an individual to use person/professional judgement in handling a situation

discretionary parole

boards grant parole based on their member's assessment of the offender or his or her capability of being successful in the outside world

double jeopardy

a common law and constitutional prohibition against a second trial for the same offense

exculpatory evidence

any information having a tendency to clear a person of guilt or blame

exigent circumstance

situations in which police are allowed to search a structure without a warrant. (when someone is in imminent danger or when there is a possibility of evidence being destroyed)

general deterrence

seeks to prevent others from committing a crime by making an example of another

grass eaters

police who accept bribes

grievance procedure

formalized arrangement, whereby institutionalized individuals have the opportunity to register complaints about the consitutions of their confinement

inchoate crime

an offense not yet completed


formal written accusation submitted to the court by grand jury

internal affairs

branch of police organization tasked with investigating charges of wrongdoing involving members of the department.

jury selection

the second step during a trial

law enforcement

generic name for the activities of the agencies responsible for maintaining public order and enforcing the law.

mandatory parole

conditional release) legislation that mandates supervised release under specific conditions such as the completion of a percentage of the prison sentence.

mala en se

acts that are considered wrong and convention, as wrong in themselves such as murder, rape, etc

meat eaters

police that initiate bribes

mens rea

guilty mind


the unlawful killing of another human being

operational capacity

number of inmates a prison can effectively accommodate based upon management considerations

parens patriae

common law principle that allows state to take custody of a child when he or she becomes delinquent, is abandoned, or is in need of care that the natural parents are unable or unwilling to provide

prison subculture

the values and behavioral patterns of characteristics of prison inmates

problem police officer

a law enforcer who exhibits problem behavior

reversible error

if a reversible error is identified the lower court may be reversed. The conviction is set aside and there is no further legal action. The lower court decision may be reversed with the case being returned to the trial court for new legal proceedings to correct the errors. The case may be remanded to the trial court without reversing the verdict with instructions for the court to remedy the errors

sexual battery

intentional and wrongful physical contact with a person, without his or her consent, that entails a sexual component or purpose

specific deterrence

seeks to prevent a particular offender from engaging in repeat criminality


a U.S citizen's actions to help a foreign government overthrow, make war against, or seriously injure the United States

uniform crime report

a statistical reporting program run by the FBI's Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) division

violence against women act of 1994

rovides financial support for police, prosecutors, and victims' services inn cases involving sexual violence and domestic abuse

voir dire

the process through which prospective jurors are questioned to determine if they are unbiased and can be impartial during the trial

Zebulon Brockway

appointed warden of the Elmira Reformatory in New York in 1876. Brockway established a two-prong system for managing prison populations and preparing inmates for release

community era

(1970-present)focus was on integrating the police with the community in the form of partnership.

political era

(1840-1930)represented close ties between law enforcement and public officials

reform era

(1930-1970occurred when citizens called for reform and the removal of politics from law enforcement


characteristic of the reform era of police administration. Committed to enforcing the "letter of the law" by making numerous arrests for all types of criminal behavior.


characteristic of the community era where problem solving is emphasized


characteristic of political era of policing. Focuses n "order maintenance"

industrial era

(1890-1935) goal was to maximize use of the offender's labor during imprisonment

treatment era

(1945-1967) development of behavioral techniques like treatment. Treatment was based on the "medical model"

just desserts era

(1995-present) contemporary model of imprisonment in which the principle of just desserts forms the underlying social philosophy

warehousing era

(1980-1995)public disappointment with the community-based model and high rates of recidivism led to the warehousing era.


the commission of another crime by an individual who has previously been convicted of a crime

Hamilton vs. Schiriro

(1996) supreme court case that allowed Native American inmates the right to sweat lodges

In re gault

(1967)upreme court case that confirmed a juvenile's right to due process during confinement

Kent vs. United States

(1967) supreme court case that established the following rights for juveniles being transferred to adult court: right to a transfer hearing, right to be present at a waiver hearing, right to have attorney review reports, judge must state the reasons for transfer

arrest warrant identification

the individual must be identified clearly and completely, and the connection to the crime must be made

bill of rights declaration

declaration of individual rights

Chicago, Illinois

City and state of the first comprehensive juvenile court in 1899

clerk of court responsibilities

maintains all records of criminal cases, issues summons, prepares the jury pool, subpoenas witnesses, marks physical evidence, and maintain custody of evidence

court reporter responsibilities

creates a written record of all that occurs during a trial. Also, called court stenographer or recorder

elements of a valid warrant

Neutral magistrate, probable cause, and particularity

fifth amendment protections

protects subjects from incriminating themselves, double jeopardy, or for a defendant being deprived of life, liberty, property or without due process of law.

judicial responsibilities

managing daily activities of court offices, including daily office routines. Managing staff and determining need for new staff. Overseeing court activities, and training subordinate judges

20 %

Percentage of total sentenced American inmate population that is considered older

purpose of the closing statement

to summarize the proceeding and draw a conclusion


Time period ending "hands off" doctrine

types intermediate sanctions

split sentencing, shock probation/parole, shock incarceration, mixed sentencing, community service, intensive supervision, home confinement, and electronic monitoring

types of prison capacities

design capacity, rated capacity, and operational capacity

5th 6th 14th

U.S Constitution Amendments that guarantee due process

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