Upgrade to remove ads
Psych 333 Exam 1 Study Guide
Terms in this set (178)
What is psychopathology?
The scientific study of psychological disorders
What best describes a psychological disorder?
A psychological dysfunction associated with distress or impairment in functioning and a response that is not typical or culturally expected
A breakdown in cognitive, emotional, or behavioral functioning describes:
Example of a breakdown in cognition:
Believing you are God
Example of a breakdown in emotion:
Being unable to experience pleasure
Example of a breakdown in behavior:
Being unable to leave home and get to work
Is a psychological dysfunction alone sufficient to warrant a diagnosis of a psychological disorder?
A person who thinks he will never be able to succeed in this course even though he has done well in all of his other courses has a breakdown in:
A person who thinks the water in his house is being contaminated by the CIA and has refused to shower in over a month as a breakdown in:
Cognition and Behavior
An individual who is extremely upset is described as?
What does impairment refer to?
The individual not able to function properly in one or more aspects of life (social, occupational)
Typically if the person is not distressed then they must have _____ in functioning to be given a diagnosis
Typically if the person is not impaired then they must be _____ to be given a diagnosis
How would you describe atypical?
deviating from average
How would you describe not culturally expected?
Violation of cultural norms
What career in psychopathology has a PhD (or PsyD) in psychology with both research and clinical specialization, licensed and registered, and are scientist practitioners (providing therapy and conducting research)?
What career in psychopathology has a medical degree (MD) and can prescribe medications and provide therapy?
What career in psychopathology typically has a PhD or EdD in psychology, deal with adjustment and vocational problems rather than severe disorders?
What career in psychopathology typically has a masters of social work (MSW) degree, focuses more on the social issues associated with psychological disorders such as joblessness and homelessness?
Psychiatric social worker
What career in psychopathology typically have registered nurse (RN) certification with specialized training in care and treatment of individuals with psychological disorders, may administer medication, educate family about disorder and provide other support
What career in psychopathology have masters (MA degree) and often work under supervision of a clinical psychologist
Marriage and family therapist
The number of people in the population as a whole who have the disorder refers to:
What is point prevalence?
The number of people in the population with the disorder at any given time
What is one-year prevalence?
The number of people in the population with the disorder in a given year
what is lifetime prevalence?
the number of people in the population who have had the disorder at any time in their lives
The number of new cases that occur during a given time period refers to:
Approximately 1% of the population will be diagnosed with schizophrenia at some point in their lives. This 1% statistic represents a _______________
What is the unique combination of behaviors, thoughts, and feeling that make up a specific disorder called?
What do the causes of a disorder refer to?
The ration of females to males who have a disorder is described by:
What is the beginning of a disorder?
_____ onset of a disease begins suddenly, _____ onset of a disorder develops gradually over an extended period of time
What does age of onset refer to?
the age at which a disorder typically present itself
The anticipated course of a disorder is the:
The pattern of development and change of a disorder over time is explained by:
What type of course describes a disorder lasting a long time, often a lifetime?
What type of course is used to describe individuals with a disorder tend to recover only to have later occurrences?
What type of course describes disorder improving without treatment in a relatively short time?
What is the supernatural tradition of hole chipped into scull using crude stone instruments, presumably to allow evil spirits to escape called?
Trephining (6500 BCE)
During the middle ages (14th and 15th century) what was believed to be the cause of mental disorders?
Devils, demons and witches
What did treatments in the middle ages consist of?
Exorcisms, confessions, and attempts to make the body uninhabitable for evil spirits
Who rejected the common ideas that psychological disorders were caused by devils, demons and witches, and instead proposed movement of moon and stars affect peoples psychological functioning?
Paracelsus (early 1500s)
Who believed Illness was caused by imbalance of yin and yang?
Ancient Chinese Medicine (2500 BCE)
What did the ancient Chinese medicine believe were the five elements linked to five climactic factors and various organs which were in turn linked to various emotions called "spirits"?
Heart (joy), Lungs (sorrow), liver (anger), spleen (worry), and kidneys (fear)
Who believed mental disorders had natural causes and were due to brain pathology?
Who was first to use an integrative approach?
What theory did Hippocrates use to explain the belief that illness is related to four bodily fluids (humors)
Who coined the term hysteria?
Who believed that hysteria was caused by a wandering uterus?
Who attempted to understand mental illness by linking together the elements, climates, body and emotion
Ancient Chinese and Hippocrates
The discovery of what bacterial infection could produce delusions and could be cured with penicillin, reinvigorated the biological tradition?
Who was a prominent psychiatrist and superintendent of a large hospital in NY?
John Grey (1800s)
What did John Grey believe?
Mental disorders always had physical causes and treated patients as physically ill
What did insulin shock produce that seemed to alleviate symptoms, but caused some patients to go into coma and die?
Italian psychiatrist successfully treated patients by inducing convulsions from what?
What is the surgical procedure that involved severing the connections to the prefrontal cortex?
Lobotomy was believed to calm emotions and stabilize the patient without harming what functions?
Their intelligence or motor functions
How many people in the US were lobotomized before one died?
Who is known for lobotomy?
What drugs were found to be effective in reducing hallucinations and delusions and reducing agitation and aggressiveness?
Reserpine and neuroleptics (major tranquilizers)
What drugs were found to be effective in reducing anxiety?
Benzodiazepines (minor tranquilizers)
Who emphasized the role of social environment and early learning in the development of psychological disorders?
Plato and Aristotle (400-300 BCE)
What did Plato and Aristotle believe was the best treatment?
Rational discussions and humane care
Who originated Moral Therapy (1700s)?
What is moral therapy?
normal social interaction and behavior modeled and reinforced; patients emotional and spiritual development emphasized and institutions made more humane
Who campaigned tirelessly for reform of asylums and for the humane treatment of people with mental disorders in the mental hygiene movement (1800s)?
The word "moral" used in the term "moral therapy" was meant to refer to:
Patients emotional and psychological well being
Who is credited for developing moral therapy?
who suggested that "animal magnetism" was blocked and treated patients with hysteria using magnetized water?
Who put Mesmer's practices to test using a double blind procedure, finding that "mesmerism" was nothing more than the power of suggestion?
Mesmer's beliefs were most similar to whos?
What neurologist legitimized the practice of hypnosis after observing symptoms of hysteria could be induced and removed under hypnosis?
Using hypnosis Breuer and Freud found what?
Evidence of the unconscious
Who developed the psychoanalytic model?
What is the psychoanalytic model?
Structure of mind, psychosexual stages of development, and defense mechanisms
What concept of psychoanalysis encouraged clients to say whatever comes to mind without censoring themselves?
What was free association used for?
To reveal unconscious conflicts
What concept of psychoanalysis was used to encourage clients to record and describe their dreams?
What was dream analysis used for?
attempt to gain insights into underlying emotional issues
Who all used hypnosis?
Feud, Breuer, Charcot, Mesmer
What are defense mechanisms?
Automatic (unconscious) psychological process that protect an individual against anxiety and awareness of internal or external stressors
Which defense mechanism does the individual refuse to acknowledge some painful aspect of external reality or subjective experience that would be apparent to others?
Which defense mechanism does the individual deals with an emotional conflict or stressor by transferring his/her feelings about one object onto a less threatening object?
Which defense mechanism does the individual falsely attributes her/his own unacceptable thoughts or feelings onto to another person?
Which defense mechanism does the individual expels disturbing wishes, thoughts or experiences from conscious awareness?
Which defense mechanism does the individual comes up with self-serving but incorrect explanations for his/her thoughts or behaviors?
Which defense mechanism does the individual substitutes thoughts or feelings that are diametrically opposed to her/his own unacceptable thoughts or feelings?
Which defense mechanism does the individual deal with emotional conflict or stressors by channeling maladaptive feelings or impulses into socially acceptable behavior?
Mary didn't get into the graduate school of her dreams and it was the only school to which she applies. She decides that school really wasn't for her anyway. Which defense mechanism is she most likely using?
What is the humanistic theory?
Basic quality of human nature is positive and we call all reach our highest potential (self-actualize) if given the freedom to grow
Who emphasized the positive nature of humans and the importance of setting goals and realizing our fullest potential?
Who believed nature reaches its fullest potential when we contribute to others and society?
Who postulated a hierarchy of needs and suggestions that we need to fulfill our more basic needs before we can progress to self-actualization?
Who developed Person-Centered therapy in which the therapist uses unconditional positive regard and makes as few interpretations as possible?
Carl Rogers (1960s)
What model emphasized the role of learning in human behavior and the importance of studying directly observable behavior?
What psychologist discovered classical conditioning?
What is the following referring to: Neutral stimulus (tone) paired repeatedly with unconditioned stimulus (shock), the neutral stimulus will begin to produce the unconditioned response (startle)?
Who first applied classical conditioning to humans?
How did Watson apply classical conditioning to humans?
Conditioned fear of rats in a baby named Albert by startling him each time he reached for the rat
Jones (1920s), a student of Watson, used principles of _____ to extinguished a fear of furry objects in a boy named Peter
Who created systematic desensitization?
What highly effective treatment gradually introduced individuals to the object or situation they fear, and over time learn that nothing bad happens and fear begins to diminish?
The discovery of operant conditioning in which the behavior that is reinforced will be repeated was made by who?
What did Bandura (1960s) emphasize?
Learning through modeling, the idea that behavior can be shaped simply by watching other peoples behavior be reinforced
What is Bandura's famous study?
Bobo doll study
What defines the multidimensional integrative approach (1990s)?
Behavior (normal and abnormal) is a product of the interaction between biological, psychological and social influences
What do contemporary theories of psychopathology such as the multidimensional integrative approach focus on?
Many factors that can contribute to psychological disorders and how they may interact with each other to increase a persons susceptibility for developing a psychological disorder
What main type of factor includes genetic factors, neurotransmitters, brain structure and function?
What main type of factor includes cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and developmental factors?
What main type of factor consists of cultural factors, gender, social relationships, stigma, and abuse?
What biological factor contributes to all psychological disorder but typically accounts for less than half of the explanation?
The influence of many genes rather than by one defective gene is referred to as:
What does the following statement mean: genetic effects are indirect?
"faulty" genes may lead to structural abnormalities in CNS, hormonal imbalances, neurotransmitter imbalances
What model explains individuals inherent (though multiple genes) tendencies or vulnerabilities to express certain traits or behaviors which may then be activated under certain environmental conditions like stress?
Genetic factors may increase probability that an individual will experience a stressful environment is described by what model?
Reciprocal Gene-Environmental Model
What are the environmental factors (diet, smoking, drug use) that can turn genes on or off?
No matter how strong a specific genetic predisposition is, it may never be expressed
Maladaptive environments may have little effect on the development of a psychological disorder unless the individual has a:
Not everyone who has a genetic predisposition to a disorder and who experiences a major stressor will go on to develop a psychological disorder, due to:
Protective factors can guard against these effects
what statement bests describes the influence of genetics on psychological disorders?
Genetic predispositions interact with environmental conditions to produce psychological disorders
Cells in the nervous system that transmit information via electrochemical impulses are called:
What are the branches on the cell body of neurons, containing receptors which receive chemical messages in synapses?
What is the metabolic center of the neuron (containing mechanisms to keep cell alive)?
What branch on neuron transmits messages from cell body to terminal buttons?
What releases neurotransmitters into the synpase?
terminal buttons (axon terminals)
What are the chemical messengers secreted by terminal buttons into synapses?
What are the spaces between neurons?
Which part of the neuron secretes the chemical messages (i.e., neurotransmitters) out of the neuron and into the synapse?
A group of interconnected neurons that process specific kinds of information are called:
Which neurotransmitter regulates behavior, mood and though processes
Low levels of this neurotransmitter are associated with instability, impulsivity, OCD, tendency to overreact, aggression and depression
Drugs used on serotonin to treat anxiety, mood, OCD, and eating disorders:
Tricyclic antidepressants and SSRIs
Which neurotransmitter is associated with exploratory and pleasure seeking behaviors?
Dopamins is _____ in individuals with schizophrenia and _____ in individuals with depression
Antipsychotics drugs effect what neurotransmitter?
Which neurotransmitter is involved in the "fight-or-flight" response?
What is the inhibitory neurtransmitter that inhibits a variety of behaviors and emtions called?
What does GABA reduce?
anxiety, overall arousal, and emotional responses
What is the excitatory neurotransmitter that facilitates expression of behaviors and emotions?
Which neurotransmitter can produce symptoms of schizophrenia?
Hormones are part of what system of the body?
Which gland is considered the master gland, which produces regualting hormones?
Pituitary gland is connected to what structure of the brain?
Which gland produces melatonin which affects sleep patterns and circadian rhythms?
Which gland produces thyroxin which facilitates energy, metabolism and growth?
Hypothyroidism produces symptoms of what psychological disorder?
Hyperthyroidism produces symptoms of what psychological disorder?
Which gland produces epinephrine (aka adrenaline) and cortisol in response to stress?
What is the HPA Axis?
hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal cortical axis
Exposure to chronic, unpredictable stress during early development can sensitize what system?
Sensitization of HPA Axis is implicated in which psychological disorders?
depression, anxiety, PTSD
Which neurotransmitters are implicated in depression?
serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine
What are neuroimaging techniques used for?
to better understand structural and functional abnormalities associated with various disorders
whcih neuroimaging techniques detect structural abnomalities?
CAT scan and MRI
Which neuroimaging techniques are used to detect functional abnormalities?
PET, SPECT, and fMRI
psychopaths limbic structures do not function normal
detection of functional abnormalities
patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have enlarged ventricles
detection of structural abnormalities
What are implications with using neuroimaging for psychopathology?
Direction of causality is unclear
Results from brain imaging studies:
provide insights into structural and functional abnormalities associated with psychological disorders, but are difficult to interpret because psychological experiences can change the brain
What is learned helplessness?
Seligman found that animals who repeatedly encounter negative conditions over which they have no control will give up
Learning vicariously by observing consequences of others behaviors describes what theory?
Social learning theory (Bandura)
What evidence supports the notion that our behavior can be guided by processes outside our awareness?
cognitive science has provided evidence for the unconscious
What neurological condition involves individuals report that they cannot see object but they do react to them
what describes that previous experiences can influence our behavior without our conscious awareness of those previous experiences?
Individuals with _____ tend to have biases towards attending to and remembering negative information
Individuals with _____ tend to have biases towards attending to and remembering stimuli that are perceived as threatening
Individuals with _____ tend to overestimate the likelihood of threat and their responsibility for preventing harm
Individuals with _____ tend to think one failure makes them a complete failure
Individuals with _____ tend to think anxiety is good and productive
What term is used to refer to dysfunctional attributions and though processes common in individuals with some disorders?
The term "cognitive" refers to
memory and attention, thought processes, and beliefs and attributions
What type of therapy focuses on identifying and correcting the dysfunctional attributions, attitudes and beliefs associated with some disorders?
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
What specific type of CBT is used to treat OCD by exposing clients to their feared situation and preventing them from engaging in associated ritualistic behavior?
exposure and response prevention (ERP)
Why do several disorders have a typical age of onset in early adulthood?
life is particularly stressful when undergoing many life changes and social stress and brain is not fully mature until early adulthood
_____ socioeconimic status (SES) is associated with _____ rates of psychological disorders
What does the social stigma associated with my psychological disorders lead to?
Many avoid seeking help or discussing their problems
Which of the following social factors are believed to contribute to psychological disorders?
socioeconomic status, gender roles, relationships with friends and family, culture
The same disorder may present itself in different people for different reasons (have different underlying causal factors) is referred to as:
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Abnormal Psychology - Lesson 1 Major Concepts
Psychology Chapter 15 Psychological Disorders
Module 48 Study Guide
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
ANP Lab Practical 1
Gen Chem 2 Unit 6
Psych 470 Exam 4 (Spring, 2018)
Psych 328 Exam 4