Physics Chapter 16-17
Terms in this set (140)
Define: The illumination of a surface
The __________ of a given color forms white light when it combines with that color.
The __________ of a point source is the luminous flux that falls on 1 m² of a sphere with a 1-m radius.
Define: A measure of the total rate at which light is emitted from a source
Light that vibrates in a single plane is _________.
A color formed from two primary colors of light
Define: An object that emits light
The _________________ uses straight lines to describe how light interacts with matter.
ray model of light
A material that transmits light clearly is __________.
A(n) _____________ becomes visible when light reflects off it.
Red is a(n) _____________; it forms white light when mixed with green and blue light.
A(n) __________ absorbs only one primary color from white light.
A(n) ___________ absorbs two primary colors of light.
A ______________ material transmits light, but objects can't be seen clearly through it.
A material that transmits no incident light is a(n) _________ material.
____________ explains the reduction of light intensity as it passes through a polarizing filter.
The term ___________ describes the number of light wave oscillations an observer sees.
observed light frequency
Astronomical observers use the _____________ to determine whether Earth is moving closer to or farther away from a star.
True or False:
is Earth's major source of light
True or False: Light bulbs and LEDs are
True or False: According to
the ray model of light
, light travels in a straight line until reflected or refracted.
True or False: Window glass is
________ is a translucent medium.
b. Aquarium glass
c. Stained glass
c. Stained glass
Which of the following would
change the path of light?
a. the vacuum of space
b. a mirror
c. a glass of water
d. a raindrop
a. the vacuum of space
The fact that sharp shadows are cast by the Sun is an indication that light __________.
a. is a wave
b. travels in straight lines
c. is made up of colors
d. travels in a curved path
b. travels in straight lines
Define: A straight line that represents the path of travel of light
Seventeenth-century Danish astronomer Ole Roemer studied the orbital period of ___________ to determine the speed of light.
d. Earth's moon
How long does light take to cross Earth's orbit?
Which choice best describes an inverse-square relationship?
a. Daylight on Mars is dimmer than daylight on Earth.
b. A camera flashbulb produces a sudden burst of light.
c. When you blow out a candle, the room darkens.
d. Installing compact fluorescent bulbs reduces your electric bill.
a. Daylight on Mars is dimmer than daylight on Earth.
What is the unit of illuminance and what is its symbol?
What is the unit of luminous flux and what is its symbol?
What is the unit of luminous intensity and what is its symbol?
A body that ___________ light waves is luminous, and a body that simply __________ light waves given off by a source is illuminated.
A(n) ___________ object emits light as a result of its high temperature.
The official SI unit with which light intensity is calculated is the _________.
Luminous flux expresses the _________ at which light is given off.
The term illuminance describes the __________ of a surface.
If the distance from a surface to a point source of light is doubled, the illumination reaching the surface is only _________ as great.
The relationship between illuminance and luminous flux is given by the equation _________, where the distance to the surface is represented by the variable ________. This equation is valid only if the light from the source is striking ____________ to the surface. It is also valid only for sources small enough or far away enough to be ________ sources.
E =P/4πr²; r; perpendicular; point
Symbol for the speed of light
Area of the surface of a sphere
Variable for luminous flux
Variable for illuminance
What is equivalent to the speed of light?
What is equivalent to 1 lx?
What is proportional to illumination?
What is equivalent to luminous intensity?
What color is produced when red and blue mix?
What color is produced when blue and green mix?
What color is produced when red and green mix?
What color is produced when red, blue, and green mix?
What type of colors are red, blue, and green?
What type of color is cyan?
What type of color is yellow?
What is the complementary color of magenta?
What is the complementary color of cyan?
What is the complementary color of yellow?
What does a primary pigment absorb from white light?
one primary color
What does a secondary pigment absorb from white light?
two primary colors
Is the absorption of light to form pigment colors an additive or subtractive process?
What colors are the three primary pigments?
yellow, cyan, magenta
What colors are the three secondary pigments?
red, green, blue
What color(s) doe yellow pigment absorb from light?
What color(s) does yellow pigment reflect?
red & green
What color(s) does red pigment absorb from light?
green & blue
What is the complementary pigment to cyan pigment?
What color would result from mixing two complementary pigments?
True or False: Polarized sunglasses absorb light by filtering out light that is horizontally polarized by
off the surface of roads.
True or False: The direction of a polarizing medium
to long molecules is called the polarizing axis.
True or False: Ordinary light contains waves vibrating in every direction
to its direction of travel.
True or False: A polarizing medium placed in a beam of ordinary light allows only the components of the waves moving
at a 90º angle
* to the polarizing axis to pass through.
False; in the same direction as
True or False: On average, a polarizing filter will reduce the intensity of light passing through by
True or False: Light that has passed through a polarizing filter vibrates
in a single plane
True or False: Partially polarized light will appear
to an observer looking through a polarizing filter.
True or False: When two polarizing filters are placed perpendicular to each other,
all of the light can come through
False; no light can come through
True or False: All colors of light travel at
the same speed
in a vacuum.
True or False: When you know the
in a vacuum, you can calculate its wavelength.
True or False: When a wavelength of light increases, the light is shifted
False; toward red
True or False: The frequency of a sound that a listener hears changes if either the source of the sound or the listener of that sound is moving. This same phenomenon
does not hold
for the frequency of a light wave.
False; does hold
True or False: When the observed wavelength of light is longer and the frequency is lower, the light source and the observer are moving
False; away from
True or False: Scientists can ascertain the elements that are present on distant galaxies by observing the
wavelengths of light
True or False: The Doppler effect of
can involve only the velocities of the source and the observer relative to each other.
True or False: Light waves are Doppler shifted
based upon the relative speed
of the observer and the source of light.
Define: A straight line perpendicular to the surface of a spherical mirror that divides the mirror in half.
Reflection in which rays are reflected in parallel is called ___________.
The combination of image points produced by light rays from an object is called the ________ of the object.
Define: A flat, smooth surface from which light is reflected by regular reflection.
Define: A source of light rays.
Define: The scattering of light off a rough surface.
The reflective surfaces of a(n) _________ have edges that curve toward the observer.
Diverging light rays produce a(n) ________ of an object.
At the _________ of a mirror, incident light rays that are parallel to the principal axis converge after reflecting from the mirror.
Define: A reflective surface with edges that curve away from the observer.
Define: An image formed by the converging of light rays.
An effect called ________ makes images formed by some spherical mirrors appear fuzzy.
Define: The distance from the focal point to a mirror along the principal axis.
Define: The amount by which an image is enlarged or reduced relative to an object.
True or False: The normal is a line
to a surface.
True or False: The reflection of light is
False; two dimensional
True or False: The angle of incidence equals the angle of
True or False: A mirror causes
True or False: A rough surface causes
True or False: Even seemingly
surfaces can cause diffuse reflection.
The behavior of reflected light depend on the type of light and the ________ at which the light strikes the surface.
The angle of incidence is measured between the _________ ray and the _________.
The angle of reflection is measured between the __________ ray and the _______.
The law of reflection can be explained in terms of the ________ model of light.
Each point along a wave reflects off a surface at the same _______ as the preceding point.
When a beam of light strikes a rough surface, it reflects at ________ angles, producing ________ reflection.
When a beam of light strikes a very smooth surface, the reflected rays are _________ to each other, producing __________ reflection.
In the context of mirrors, what does the term
source of light rays
What type of image does a plane mirror produce? Where is this image?
virtual image; behind the mirror
Why does a plane-mirror image appear to be behind the mirror?
Because the brain interprets light in straight lines
What does the term
the image is the same distance, same orientation, and same size as the object
How can you prove that a plane-mirror image is the same size as the object and is at the same distance behind the mirror as the object is in front of the mirror?
use geometry of similar triangles
Does a plane mirror reverse an image left to right? Why or why not?
No, it reverses the image front-to-back
True or False: The properties of a concave mirror depend on its
True or False: Rays
to the principal axis of a spherical concave mirror are reflected and converge at or near the focal point.
True or False: The focal length of a spherical concave mirror is
the radius of curvature.
What is the mirror equation?
1/f = 1/di(subscript) + 1/do(subscript)
What is the magnification equation?
m = hi(sub)/ho(sub)
What indicates that an image produced by a concave mirror is upright?
positive value for hi(sub)
Magnification, m, is equal to what?
What indicates that an image produced by a concave mirror is virtual?
negative value for di(sub)
If an object is placed at the focal point of a concave mirror, where will the image be?
Why do parabolic mirrors not suffer from spherical aberration?
All parallel rays are reflected through a single point.
What does the letter F stand for?
What does a dashed line represent when drawing rays?
Under what conditions will rays be reflected through point F?
if all three rays are parallel to the principal axis
True or False: The focal length of a convex mirror is
True or False: Rays reflected from a convex mirror always
True or False: Convex mirrors reflect an
field of view.
True or False: The images produced by convex mirrors are
True or False: When the magnification is negative, the image is
True or False: When compared to the size of surrounding objects, the images produced by convex mirrors are always
What type of image does a convex mirror produce? Why?
virtual; reflected rays diverge
Why do objects viewed in convex mirrors appear farther away than they really are?
they are smaller and the are is larger
What useful properties doe convex mirrors have?
the area is enlarged
Why is the focal length of a convex mirror negative?
the focal point is behind the mirror
How are the images formed by convex mirrors and plane mirrors similar? How are they different?
Similar - both form virtual images
Different - plane mirror image is the same size and distance from the mirror as the object; convex image is smaller and closer to the mirror than the object
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