US History B: Civil Rights Movement and the Kennedy and Johnson Years
Terms in this set (59)
De Jure Segregation
segregation imposed by the law
De Facto Segregation
segregation by unwritten custom tradition, was a fact of life
Plessy v.s. Ferguson
trial where the black men could not sit in the white man's railroad cart
Jim Crow Laws
laws the went against the African Americans, and helped to further segregation among the black and the whites
Congress of Racial Equality, founded to bring an end to racial injustice
First African American to play in Major League Baseball
Brown v.s. The Board of Education
Ruling that public schools could no longer be separated by race.ment thatblacks and whites could no longer be kept in separete schools
NAACP lawyer who won many cases for black rights in the courts. Main lawyer in Brown v. Board of Education. He served on the Supreme Court
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
Chief Justice on the Supreme Court from 1953 to 1969, presided over the Brown V. Board of Education case
City in which 9 African-American students were integrated into a previous all white high school in 1957.
Civil Rights Act of 1957
The Civil Rights Act of 1957, primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation enacted in the United States since Reconstruction. It was proposed by Congress to President Dwight Eisenhower.
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
Martin Luther King Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success
protests by black college students, 1960-1961, who took seats at "whites only" lunch counters and refused to leave until served; in 1960 over 50,000 participated in sit-ins across the South. Their success prompted the formation of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee.
(Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee)-a group established in 1960 to promote and use non-violent means to protest racial discrimination; they were the ones primarily responsible for creating the sit-in movement.
Bus trips taken by both black and white civil rights advocates in the 1960s. Sponsored by the Congress of Racial Equality, freedom rides in the South were designed to test the enforcement of federal regulations that prohibited segregation in interstate public transportation.
He was a civil rights advocate who spurred a riot at the University of Mississippi. The riot was caused by angry whites who did not want Meredith to register at the university. The result was forced government action, showing that segregation was no longer government policy.
city in alabama where violence towards african american nonviolent protests occured
March on Washington
held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally
"I have a dream speech"
A speech given by Martin Luther King, Jr. at the demonstration of freedom in 1963 at the Lincoln Memorial. It was an event related to the civil rights movement of the 1960's to unify citizens in accepting diversity and eliminating discrimination against African-Americans
Civil Rights Act 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
A volunteer project in which college students spent their summer vacation in Mississippi, registering African Americans to vote
Fannie Lou Hamer
(1917-1977) bacame a SNCC field worker in 1963; helped found the MFDP; left SNCC in 1966 when the organization embraced Black Power but remained active in the civil right movement in 1971; helped found the National Women's Political Caucus
Voting Rights Act of 1965
a law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African-American suffrage
The constitutional amendment passed in 1964 that declared poll taxes void in federal elections.
a group that was appointed by President Johnson to study the causes of urban violence and that recommended the elimination of de facto segregation in American society
militant civil rights leader (1925-1965)
Nation of Islam
a religious group, popularly known as the black muslims, founded by Elijah Muhammad to promote black separatism and the islamic religion.
A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community.
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest.
John F. Kennedy
president during part of the cold war and especially during the superpower rivalry and the Cuban missile crisis. he was the president who went on TV and told the public about the crisis and allowed the leader of the Soviet Union to withdraw their missiles. other events, which were during his terms was the building of the Berlin wall, the space race, and early events of the Vietnamese war.
Richard M. Nixon
37th President of the United States (1969-1974) and the only president to resign the office. He initially escalated the Vietnam War, overseeing secret bombing campaigns, but soon withdrew American troops and successfully negotiated a ceasefire with North Vietnam, effectively ending American involvement in the war. Watergate Scandal.
Policy of having the option of using either nuclear or conventional forces in responce to a threat
a civilian organization sponsored by the United States government
Alliance for Progress
a program in which the United States tried to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
Bay of Pigs Invasion
failed invasion of Cuba in 1961 when a force of 1,200 Cuban exiles, backed by the United States, landed at the Bay of Pigs.
Cuban missile crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
Stalin's successor, wanted peaceful coexistence with the U.S. Eisenhower agreed to a summit conference with Khrushchev, France and Great Britain in Geneva, Switzerland in July, 1955 to discuss how peaceful coexistence could be achieved.
direct telephone link created by Kennedy and Kruschev to allow leaders to communicate instantly in times of crisis
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
July 1963 all powers except France and China agree to stop testing in atmosphere, space and underwater
a wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
Kennedy's plan, supports civil rights, pushes for a space program, wans to cut taxes, and increase spending for defense and military
Equal Pay Act
Act that requires men and women to be paid equally when they are doing equal work in the same organization.
When a government spends more than it takes in and goes into debt.
a competition of space exploration between the United States and Soviet Union
10 month investigation of the assassination of JFK
War on Poverty
President Lyndon B. Johnson's program in the 1960's to provide greater social services for the poor and elderly
Economic Opportunity Act
law enacted in 1964 that provided funds for youth programs antipoverty measures, small-business loans, and job training.
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
A program added to the Social Security system in 1965 that provides hospitalization insurance for the elderly and permits older Americans to purchase inexpensive coverage for doctor fees and other health expenses.
federal program that provides medical benefits for low-income persons.
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
law that changed the national quota system to limits of 170,000 immigrants per year from the eastern hemisphere and 120,000 per year from the western hemisphere
Mapp v. Ohio
Established the exclusionary rule was applicable to the states (evidence seized illegally cannot be used in court)
Gideon v. Wainwright
a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants unable to afford their own attorneys.
Miranda v. Arizona
1966 Supreme Court decision that sets guidelines for police questioning of accused persons to protect them against self-incrimination and to protect their right to counsel.