64 terms

Humanities: Early History, India

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Neolithic Revolution
"invention" of agriculture
Prehistory
before writing
Water-raising mechanism
technology used when rainfall wasn't sufficient, led directly to the rise of the first villages
Aryans
also known as Indo-Europeans, they invaded India and introduced the caste system and religious ideas that evolved into Hinduism
Primary source
original material, such as a law code or piece of artwork, used by historians to gather clues about a society
Paleolithic
Old Stone
"Out of Africa" theory
idea that Homo sapiens probably first lived in Africa and then migrated into other areas of the world
Domesticate
to raise animals in a controlled way that makes them best suited to human use
Cultural diffusion
spread of ideas, customs and technologies from one people to another
City-state
political unit including an urban center and its surrounding lands; typical in ancient Mesopotamia
How Indian leaders explained the origins of the caste system
the gods divided the body of Purusha (a divine universal being) into four parts
Ramayana
Indian epic (has similarities to the Epic of Gilgamesh)
Moksha
ultimate goal of existence: achieving union with Brahman
Reincarnation
rebirth of soul in another bodily form - path to moksha
Karma
good and moral actions
Dharma
religious and moral duties of an individual, such as the caste of your occupation
Missionaries and traders
the two groups who helped spread Buddhism in the classical era
Dowry
payment to the groom when a woman gets married
Fertile Crescent
area where agriculture first originated
Mesopotamia
"land between two rivers," site of first civilization
Ashoka
Indian emperor who promoted Buddhism
Hindu Kush pass
allowed entry into India, key reason for why India has a diverse population
Harrapan
ancient civilization in India
Mauryan
the first classical empire in India
Gupta
second classical empire in India, during which India experienced its "golden age"
Warriors
the caste just below the brahmans, or priests
Brahmans
highest caste in Indian society; otherwise known as priests
Yoga
"union," method of training to strive toward oneness with god
B.C.E.
Before Common Era
C.E.
Common Era
Traits of hunter-gatherers
lived in small groups, gender equality; men hunted, women gathered
Job specialization
occurred when agriculture emerged, because not everyone needed to be involved in securing food; included pottery, leaders, scribes
Bronze Age
phase after the Neolithic revolution, in which metal was used to create better tools and weapons
Barley, wheat
first domesticated crops
Patriarchy
system in which men are the head of the household and hold more power than women
Pastoralist
a nomad who uses animals as their lifeway, for example, a shepherd
Lifeway that was the most work
farming
Lifeway(s) that used domesticated animals
pastoralists and farmers
Lifeway that was most egalitarian (treated everyone equally)
hunter-gatherers
Regions where the first four early river valley civilizations emerged
Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, China
Early uses of fire
cook food, protection from predators, turn caves into homes
First purpose of writing systems
to keep records of surplus food
Approximate year agriculture emerged
8,000 BCE (10,000 years ago)
Early purposes of governments
oversee irrigation systems, keeping records of food supply, writing laws
Early purposes of religion in ancient civilizations
to explain and try to control the forces of nature (to have successful crop yields)
Early purposes of art in ancient civilizations
for worship, sacrifice and/or burials
Early forms of infrastructure in ancient civilizations
irrigation systems, defensive walls, urban planning (example: plumbing)
Indus River
significant river for ancient Indian civilizations
Ganges River
significant river for classical Indian civilizations
Himalayan mountains
formed a barrier in the northeast of India
Monsoons
heavy annual rainfall, often lasting a month: could cause flooding
Harrapan and Mohenjo-daro
names of ancient Indian civilizations
Engineering achievements of ancient India
plumbing, baths
Vedas
ancient scriptures that became part of Hinduism
Caste system
strict social hierarchy in India, reinforced by Hinduism
Vaisyas
caste that included merchants and farmers, expected to use their wealth for religious purposes
Sudras
largest Indian caste: common laborers
Untouchables
lowest group in the Indian caste system; considered unclean, performed the worst jobs
Brahma
creator god in Hinduism
Cow
animal that is considered sacred in Hinduism, taboo to eat
common name for Siddhartha Gautama
Buddha
Nirvana
union with the universe and release from reincarnation, member of any caste could achieve this after this life according to Buddhism
classical era intellectual developments in India
zero, "Arabic" numerals, religious art
Nomads who defeated classical Gupta dynasty
Huns