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Terms in this set (25)
Change over time; the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
What is a theory? How are theories developed? Can theories be disproven?
A well-supported testable explanation of phenomena that have occurred in the natural world. Developed from ideas. Can be disproven.
Who established the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection? What was the name of his book? What island is famous for its relationship to the theory?
Charles Darwin. "On the Origin of Species". The Galapagos Islands.
How are finches on the Galapagos Islands similar? How are they different?
They all descended from a common ancestor. Their beaks differ from island to island for what type of foods they eat.
How are tortoises on the Galapagos Islands similar? How are they different?
They all came from a common ancestor. Their shells differed from island to island (dome/saddle-back).
What is diversity? How is evolution related to diversity?
Variety or difference in things. Species adapt to their environment and lifestyle over time and change.
How did geology help Darwin establish his theory?
He studied fossils and found that some were similar to living species & some were very different. He also learned that even though some countries had the same geography they had different animals there. Realized that Earth changes slowly over time.
Describe Lamarck's theory. Was it proven to be correct?
Tendency toward perfection: organisms want to be perfect so they change & acquire features that help them live more successfully.
Use and disuse: if an organism used a certain body part more often it would grow & become more useful & if it didn't use it it would slowly disappear.
Inheritance of acquired traits: if an organism acquired a trait during their lifetime then they would pass it on to their offspring.
No, they weren't correct because you can't alter your characteristics. But he did realize that organisms adapt to environments.
What are variations & adaptations? Give examples.
Species vary from each other over time because they change to suit to their environments. Variation: some plants bear larger fruits than others. Adaptations: finches have different sized beaks depending on the seeds they eat.
4 processes of Evolution by Natural Selection. Name and explain the 3 types of natural selection.
Struggle for existence, survival of the fittest, descent with modification, and variation. Directional selection: when individuals at one end of the curve have higher fitness than individuals at the middle or other end (beak size).
Stabilizing selection: when individuals near the center of the curve have higher fitness than individuals at either end (baby mass).
Disruptive selection: when individuals at the upper and lower ends of the curve have higher fitness than those near the middle (birds eat more small & big seeds than average seeds).
What causes the struggle for existence?
High birth rates combined with a shortage of life's basic needs force competition between organisms.
What is common descent or descent with modification?
Every living species has descended with changes from other species over time to adapt. All species were derived from common ancestors.
What is geographic distribution?
Species living in different areas descended from a common ancestor but adapted to their environment. If organisms were living under the same conditions in different areas they could acquire similar characteristics.
What are homologous structures? Describe the forearms of vertebrates.
Structures that have different mature forms but develop from the same embryonic tissues. Limbs of reptiles, birds, and mammals vary greatly but all constructed from same basic bones and tissues.
How does embryology show evidence of evolution?
Because different organisms look similar and develop similarly in their early stages of development it is guessed that they came from a common ancestor.
What are fossils? How does the fossil record show evidence of evolution? What are the basic methods used to date fossils?
Preserved remains of ancient organisms. It shows how different groups of organisms have changed over time. Relative dating: comparing fossils with others with known dates, radioactive dating: observing amount of radioactive isotopes left in an organism.
What are vestigial structures?
Organs of organisms that aren't used & that are just traces of homologous structures in other organisms. EX: legs of skinks, some have them, some don't because they don't affect life
What is artificial selection?
Humans select variations they find useful for reproducing. EX: breeding dogs.
How are new species formed? What is reproductive isolation? Define speciation.
The gene pools of two populations must become separated to form a new species. When the members of two populations cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspring. Speciation is the formation of new species.
What causes extinction? How does extinction affect the formation of new species?
Species compete for resources, environments change, natural disasters. Now habitats are left open are provide ecological opportunities for those that survive and now produce many new species (birds and mammals).
What is macroevolution?
Large-scale evolutionary patterns & processes that occur over long periods of time.
What is adaptive radiation?
A single species or a small group of species has evolved into diverse forms that live in different ways. (Darwin's finches)
What is convergent evolution?
Unrelated organisms come to resemble one another. (dolphins & seals)
What is coevolution?
The process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other over time. (flowers & insects relationship)
If it asks for frequency use: p+q=1
P is dominant, Q is recessive
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