Red Scare
A period of hysterical fears in America over communists due to the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.
Sacco and Vanzetti
Notorious case regarded as a "judicial lynching" reflecting antiredism and antiforeignism.
Emergency Quota Act
Newcomers from Europe were restricted in any given year to a definite quota, which was set at 3 percent of the people of their nationality who had been licing in the United States in 1910.
Immigration Quota Act of 1924
Replaced the Emergency Quota Act of 1921 by cutting the quota for foreigners from 3 pervent to 2 percent.
Volstead Act
Implemented the Eighteenth Amendment which authorized the Prohibition in 1919
Believed that God was a "good guy" and the universe was a pretty chummy place. Fundamentalist champions of old time religion lost ground to them.
New Deal
Created by Roosevelt sought to provide the Americans with relief, recovery, and reform.
Brain Trust
A small group of reform-minded intellectuals who "ghostwrote" speeches for Roosevelt.
Hundred Days
(March 9-June16, 1933) Democratic Congress whipped out unprecedented basketfuls of remedial legislation seeking to deal with a desperate emergency.
Schechter Case
"Sick chickens" sold interstate. The Supreme Court basically brought about the end of the NRA in the confirmation that Congress could not delegate legislative powers to the executive and that congressional control of interstate commerce could not properly apply to the local fowl business in NY.
Dust Bowl
Dry farming techniques and mechanization revolutionized Great Plains agrigulture, but the tractor and disc plow tore up powdery topsoil that the wind eroded away, with drought and wind triggering dust storms.
Wagner Act
Granted workers more power so that they can successfully gain increased wages and other things necessary for living. It also created a National Labor Relations Board for adminstrative purposes and reasserted the rights of labor to engage in self-organization and to bargain collectively through representatives of its own choice.
Court-Packing Scheme
Roosevelt, in an effort to gain a Supreme Court more favorable to public opinion, asked Congress for legislation to permit him to add a new justice to the Supreme Court for every member over seventy who would not retire.
20th Amendment
In 1933 it swept away the postelection lame duck session of Congress and shortened by six weeks the awkward period before inauguration.
21st Amendment
Repealed prohibition in 1933
Social Security Act
Provided security for old age, specified categories of retired workers were to recieve regular payments from Washington financed by a payroll tax on employers and employees.
Congress of Industrial Org.
Unskilled workers organizing themselves into effective unions Their use of the sit-down strike, refusing to leave the factory buildings, preventing the importation of strikebreakers were fairly successful.
War Production Board
Orchestrated the increased production of weaponry from American factories. It also halted the manufacturing of nonessential items such as passenger cars, assigning priorities for transportation and access to raw materials.
Office of Price Administration
Brought ascending prices under control with extensive regulation, rationing critical goods like meat and butter.
Casablanca Conference
Roosevelt met with Churchill in 1943 agreeing to step up the Pacific war, invade Sicily, increase pressure in Italy, and insist upon an "unconditional surrender" of the enemy. The unyielding policy would hearten the otherwise suspicious Soviets who said they feared seperate Allied peace negotiations.
Operation involving some forty-six hundred vessels participating in the invasion assault of French Normandy. Broke out of the German iron ring that had enclosed the Normandy landing zone, and after an American-French force landed in 1944 on the southern coast of France and swept upward, so Paris was liberated.
V-E Day
Victory in Europe Day occurred in the 1945 when what was left of the German government surrendered unconditionally, resulting in frenzied rejoicing in the Allied countries.
V-J Day
Victory in Japan Day occurred in 1945, resulting from the use of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Potsam Conference
Held in Britain. It basically sounded the death knell for Japan, giving the Japanese the ultimatum of "surrender or be destroyed". American bombers showered the warning on Japan, but they still refused to surrender
Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin met at Yalta. They made final plans for smashing the buckling German lines and shackling the beaten axis foe. Stalin agreed that Poland with revised boundaries should have a representative government based on free elections. Talked about the UN
Tehran Conference
Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin met to coordinate the promised effort of advancing into Eastern Europe. Discussions ran smoothly, as they managed to agree on broad plans, especially those for launching Soviet attacks on Germany from the east simultaneously with the prospective Allied assault from the west.
"Ohio Gang"
The evil associates that ended up surrounding Harding. Designing political leeches capitalized on Harding's weakness in being unable to say no.
Kellog-Briand Pact
Pact of Paris initiated by Coolidge's secretary of State signed by sixty-two nations forswearing war as an instrument of national policy, although defensive wars were still permitted, so it was useless.
Teapot Dome scandal
Secretary of the interior induced the secretary of the navy to transfer the priceless naval oil reserves at Teapot Dome and Elk Hills to the Interior Department.
Dawes Plan
US bankers loaned money to Germany, who paid reparations to France and Britain, and the former Allies paid war debts to the US. Drying up credit brought about the great crash in 1929.
Hawley Smoot Tariff of 1930
The highest protective tariff in the nation's peacetime history during Hoover's presidency.
Bonus Army
WWI veterans desirous of their promised bonus that camped out in front of the White House in protest until Hoover sent General MacArthur to evict them from the Hooverville with force, making Hoover unpopular.
Stimson Doctrine
Declared that the United States would not recognize any territorial acquisitions achieved by force. Righteous indignation would substitute for solid initiatives.
Black Friday
Sept 24 1869 Jim Fisk and Jay Gould bid gold way higher than it really was which forced Grant to give money from the treasury, causing a mini crisis.
Spread following the Great Depression and post-1918 chaos in Europe. The individual was nothing; the state was everything. It was lead by Communist USSR with Joseph Stalin, followed by Italian Benito Mussolini, and Adolph Hitler with Germany.
Recieved a boost from teh alarms abroad. (Mussolini in Ethiopia, Japan in China...) America still believed that their encircling the seas conferred a kind of mystic immunity.
Good Neighbor Policy
Roosevelt wanted to use this policy to keep America uninvolved in Europe and withdrawn from Asia while embracing its New World neighbors. Accented consultation and nonintervention.
Reciprocal Trade Agreement
1934. An act passed by Congress and was deigned to lift American export trade from the depression doldroms, aimed at both relief and recovery, while activating the low-tariff policy of the New Dealers.
Rome-Berlin Axis
Formed in 1936 when Nazi Hitler and the Fascist Mussolini allied themselves together with a mutual hate for the ungenerous Treaty of Versailles.
Neutrality Acts
1935, 1936, and 1937 stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war, certain restirctions would automatically go into effect. They were tailored to keep America out of a conflict like WWI and marked the abandonment of the traditional policy of freedom of the seas.
Spanish Civil War
1936-1939 Prepared countries for the forthcoming WWII and taught the folly of neutrality by legislation, Spanish rebels rose against the left-leaning republican government in Madrid led by General Francisco Franco, who was supported by Hitler and Mussolini and attempted to overthow the established Loyalist regime. Russian support of Loyalists chilled American sympathies.
Quarantine Speech
President Roosevelt called for positive endeavors to quarantine the aggressors- presumably by economic embargoes caused isolationists to protest that a moral quarantine would lead to a shooting quarantine.
China Incident
1937. Japanese militants near Beijing toughed off the explosion that led to an all-out invasion of China. Roosevelt refused to declare it a war.
Cash and Carry
Resulted from the Neutrality Acts of 1939 providing that henceforth the European democracies might buy American war materials, but they would have to transport the munitions in their own ships after paying them in cash. America would thus avoid loans, war debts, and the torpedoing of American arms carriers.
Hitler-Stalin Nonaggression
Soviet Union signed a nonaggression treaty with Hitler on August 23, 1939. It meant the Nazi German leader now had a green light to make war on Poland and the Western democracies, without fearing the Soviet Union would react.
America First Committee
Organized by isolationists determined to avoid American bloodshed at all costs, proclaiming "England Will Fight to the Last American"
Lend Lease
Device that would keep the nation out of the war. America would send a limitless supply of arms to the victims of the aggression, who in turn would finish the job and keep the war on their side of the Atlantic, returning the weapons or their equivalents when the war was over.
Atlantic Charter
Covenant outlining the aspiration of the democracies for a better world at war's end. Opposed imperialistic annexations and promised self-determination to the inhabitants, affirming the right of a people to choose their own form of government and to regain the governments abolished by the dictators.