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King Edward 3rd

Caused many Florentine Bankers to go bankrupt when he dismissed all of his depts. But even this crisis as well as the black plague and ciompi labor revolts could not shake the strong economic foundation of Florence.

Sforza Family

Family that harshly governed Milan under the guise of calling it a "republic".

Medici Family

Great banking family of Florence who ruled Florence from 1434-94 even though not public officers. Such was an example of an oligarchies(rule by the merchant aristocracy) that ran rampant in Italy.


1434-64, ruler of Florence. Switched Florentine allegiance from Venice to Milan.


1469-1492, ruler of Florence.


In charge during the French invasion, he was thrown from power and he the Medici's were deported from Florence.

Pope Alexander VI

Helped to reassert Papal authority throughout central Italy.

Cesare Borgia

Pope Alexander's son, worked to unite the papal states of central and southern Italy. Became the hero of Machiavelli's the prince for his ruthless tactics.

Girolama Savonnarola

Dominican friar who predicted the French invasion of Florence and denounced the city's pagan habits, Lorenzo de Midici leadership, and Pope Alexander's corruption in fiery speeches.

Charles VIII

French King who invaded and conquered most of Italy in 1494.

Louis XII

Form ed the League of Cambrai with The German Emporer Maximilian to take away Venice's mainland holdings.

Pope Leo X

Pope who called on the Spanish and Germans to expel the French from Italy, this allegiance was temporarily successful . He was also the son of Lorenzo de Medici.

Charles V

(1519-1556) Succeeded Maximilian as Holy Roman Emperor, when he returned to Italy in 1522 a series of conflicts called the Hapsburg-Valois Wars Broke out. Sacked Rome in 1527.


Italian Humanist, Petrarch believed he was at the start of a new golden age in knowledge he was the first to use the French term Renaissance, he widely regarded as the father of humanism.

Saint Augustine

Individualist who in the fifth century, along with Peter Abelard and Guibert of Nogent in the twelfth, saw himself as unique and made autobiographical statements that went against the Christian ideals of humility and began to challenge the church.


stresses personality, uniqueness, and genius to reach your own personnel potential.


Gold Smith and sculptor who was certain of his own personal genius that he wrote about in his autobiography so that the whole world might appreciate it.

Pope Nicholas V

Planned the Vatican library for the he thousand manuscripts he collected.

Pope Sixtus IV

Built the afore mentioned library which stands today.

Leonardo Bruni

Florentine Historian who coined the term humanism.

Pico Della Mirandola

Florentine writer who wrote "On the Dignity of Man" which stressed mans natural dignity because he was created in God's image. Believing man was some were between beast and angels he concluded there was no depth to what man could accomplish.

Jan Massys

Painted "the Usurers" which depicts wealthy men counting the days earnings and sneering at any viewer.

Lorenzo Valla

Wrote "On Pleasure" which defends indulging in pleasures of the senses. He is also regarded as the father of modern historical criticism.

Giovanni Boccacio

Florentine who Wrote "The Decameron" which describes ambitious merchants, friars, cuckhold husbands All of these people are displayed in an inquisitive, sensual light, steering away from the "contempt of the world" displayed by medieval authors.

Pope Julius II

Commissioned work on Michelangelo's Saint Peter's dome which stands today. Also personally led Italian troops against French invaders.


(1475-1564) Sculpted David for the Florentine government, painted the dome of Saint Peter's and the "last judgement". Painted ceiling the Sistine chapel for 3,000 ducats an astronomical wage.



Leonardo de Vinci

(1452-1519)painted the last supper which depicts the stress between Jesus and his disciples.


(1276-1337)Renaissance painter who led the way for realism in painting. His treatment of the human body replaced the stiffness of the middle ages.


(1386-1466) Donatello one of Florence's greatest artists took sculpting the human body from its medieval spiritual state to a more classical self-awareness look.

Piero Della Francesca

(1420-1492) pioneered perspective painting with linear representation, an example is the last supper.


(1401-1428)Sometimes called the father of modern painting, his painting characterize realism, narrative power, and remarkable use of light.


(1477-1576)The great respect artist received was demonstrated when Charles V visited his workshop and bent to pick up his fallen paint brush to show that everyone was a patron.


(1431-1507)A highly regarded painter who traveled around quite a bit. his paintings include: a portrait of Fredrick II, "a Jewish Orator", and "Turkish Scribe".

Benozzo Gozzoli

Painted "the Journey of the Magi" which was commissioned by Piero de Medici to adorn his palace.

Pual Verferio

(1370-1444) Wrote essays emphasizing good education and ethics for young men of society.

Baldassare Castiglione

In 1528 wrote the "The Courtier" which served as a guide for young men to gentlemanly behavior.

Niccolo Machiavelli

(1469-1527) Wrote the prince which served as a how to book for taking over a maintaining control of a princedom.

Johann Gutenburg

In 1455 along with Johann Fust and Peter Schoffer invented movable type, and in 1456 Gutenburg printed the first book on printing press.

Pieto Aretino

(1492-1556) In his "Sonetti Lusseriosi" and "ragionamenti" he used pornography and graphic sex positions to criticize local prince's court, clergy, and education.


measurement of time

Pope Sylvester II

(999-1003) built the first mechanical clock in the west.

Sofonisba Anguissaola

(1539-1625) One of the first women to become a know painter she painted pictures of her five sisters and well know people.

Artemisia Gentileschi

(1593-1653)A women renowned for her paintings.

Isabella Andreini

(1562-1694) Regarded as one of the greatest actress's of her day.

Laura Cereta

(1469-1499)An educated women who illustrates how women were often forced to choose between a husband and children or study and educate themselves.

Thomas More

(1478-1535) A Petrarch of the north, More wrote "Utopia" which gives an account of a perfect society were education never ceases and everyone gets along.


(1466-1536)Raised in a Dutch monastery, Erasmus became a humanist who wrote many books. "The adages": a list of Greek and Latin lists on behavior." The Education of a Christian Prince": A practical and idealistic book for the education of young rulers." The Praise of Folly": a worldly satire which pleas for the Christian upbringing of children. Two things are prevalent throughout Erasmus's works which are: Educations as means to reform, and That Christianity is an inner attitude of heart and spirit.


(1490-1553) Wrote the comedic masterpieces "Gargantua": the adventures of a giant and his son. and "Pantagruel": a spoof on contemporary French society.

Van Der Weyden and Van Eyck

Flemish painters who a were considered equal to the highly skilled Italian painters.

Jerome Bosch

(1450-1516)A Flemish painter characterized by grotesque themes. His "Death of a Miser" shows rats and toads taking his wealth while an angel urges him to except the crucifix.

Henry IV

(1399-1413)His rule plagued by the plague and on going war of the roses between York(White rose) and Lancaster(RED rose)

Henry VI

Further disorder prevailed and the monarchy sunk to its lowest levels ever.

Edward IV and Richard III

(1483-1485) Worked with Henry VII to crush the nobility.

Henry VII

(1485-1509)Established the Tudor dynasty. He distrusted the nobility but called several times. he rebuilt England's economy through the merchant marine and clothe industries.

Ferdnand and Isabella

(1474-1516)Sought to destroy nobility power and rebuild Spain through diplomatic relations and conquest.

Pope Alexander VI

Gave the right to appoint Bishops to the Spanish Monarchy.

Charles VII

(1422-1461)French king who sought to rebuild France after the hundred years war. He reconciled warring houses and issued "The Pragmatic Sanction" which established that the French monarchy was of a higher authority then the church.

Louis XI

(1461-1483) Called the spider King because of his treacherous disposition. He sought to unify France through industry and money. Destroyed the house of Anjou and laid the groundwork for later French absolutism.

Concordat at Bologna

(1516)Francis I and Pope Leo X mutual agreement that rescinded the pragmatic sanction and gave the Pope the right to receive Bishops and abbots first years income. And French rulers could select those Abbot and Bishops.


(began 1478) Killing of Jews by tribunals appointed by Ferdinand. 200,000 died. Jews had become prominent moneylenders and physicians causing great resentment of them, they were blamed for the black plague and most everything else that went wrong.

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