45 terms

Chapter 11

systems development life cycle
the overall process for developing information systems from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance
planning phase
involves establishing a high level plan of the intended project and determining project goals
analysis phase
involves analyzing end-user business requirements and refining project goals into defined functions and operations of the intended system
business requirement
detailed set of business requests that the system must meet in order to be successful
design phase
involves describing the desired features and operations of the system including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, pseudo code, and other documentation
development phase
involves taking all of the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforming them into the actual system
testing phase
involves bringing all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to test for errors, bugs, and interoperability and verify that the system meets all of the business requirements defined in the analysis phase
implementation phase
involves placing the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with the system
maintenance phase
involves performing changes, corrections, additions, and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet the business goals
waterfall methodology
a sequential, activity-based process in which each phase in the SDLC is performed sequentially from planning through implementation and maintenance
rapid application development methodology
emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system to accelerate the systems development process
extreme programming methodology
breaks a project into tiny phases, and developers cannot continue on to the next phase until the first phase is complete
agile methodology
a form of XP, aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of useful software components
iterative development
consists of a series of tiny projects
a smaller-scale representation or working model of the users' requirements or a proposed design for an information system
rational unified process methodology
provides a framework for breaking down the development of software into four gates
SCRUM methodology
uses small teams to produce small pieces of deliverable software using sprints, or 30-day intervals, to achieve an appointed goal
temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result
project management
the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements
project deliverable
any measurable, tangible, verifiable outcome, result, or item that is produced to complete a project
project milestone
represents key dates when a certain group of activities must be performed
project manager
an individual who is an expert in project planning and management
project management office (PMO)
an internal department that oversees all organizational projects
project stakeholders
individuals and organizations actively involved in the project or whose interests might be affected as a result of project execution or project completion
executive sponsor
the person or group who provides the financial resources for the project
project charter
a document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities
project scope
defines the work that must be completed to deliver a product with the specified features and functions
project objectives
quantifiable criteria that must be met for the project to be considered a success
project constraints
specific factors that can limit options
project assumptions
factors that are considered to be true, real, or certain without proof or demonstration
project plan
a formal, approved document that manages and controls project execution
PERT chart
a graphical network model that depicts a project's tasks and the relationships between those tasks
a logical relationship between the project tasks, or between a project task and a milestone
critical path
a path from the start to the finish that passes through all the tasks that are critical to completing the project in the shortest amount of time
Gantt chart
a simple bar chart that depicts project tasks against a calendar
project manager
an individual who is an expert in project planning and management, defines and develops the project plan, and tracks the plan to ensure the projects is completed on time and on budget
project milestones
represent key dates when a certain group of activities must be performed
change management
a set of techniques that aid in evolution, composition, and policy management of the design and implementation of a system
change management system
a collection of procedures to document a change request and define the steps necessary to consider the change based on the expected impact of the change
change control board (CCB)
responsible for approving or rejecting all change requests
a common approach using the professional expertise within an organization to develop and maintain the organization's information technology systems
an arrangement by which one organization provides a service or services for another organization that chooses not to perform them in-house
onshore outsourcing
engaging another company within the same country for services
nearshore outsourcing
contracting an outsourcing arrangement with a company in a nearby country
offshore outsourcing
using organizations from developing countries to write code and develop systems