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protects embryo


disposal and respiration


nutrient storage



provides protection from dessication and reduces the dependence of tetrapods on water

How is the amniotic egg a key innovation?

amniotic egg, ribcage, keratin, internal fertilization

What are the shared derived traits of amniotes?

parareptiles, turtles, diapsids

Reptiles consist of what three groups?

no fenestration, large stocky herbivores

What are characteristics of parareptiles?


no holes in skull behind eye socket

large aquatic reptiles, archosaurs, lepidosaurs

The Diapsid form what three groups?

crocidilians, birds, extinct dinosaurs and pterosaurs

The Archosaurs consist of what group of animals?

tuataras and squamates

The Lepidosaurs consist of what groups?





reptiles that returned to the seas

Archosaurs are known as the .....


An archosaurs...large aquatic predators...lots of species

Ichthyosaurs gills....viviparous....


first flying tetrapods...different wing design than birds and bats...


carnivors, herbivores, omnivores, largest herbivores to live on land, largest carnivores such as the T-Rex

bipedal saurischian dinosaurs, birds

What are the theropods and what are they closest related too...

Mesozoic bird

The Archeopteryx is famous for being the

enhances hunting and survival, migration

How is the evolution of flight a key innovation?

wings, feathers, sternum, loss of teeth, endothermic, four chambered heart, excellent eye sight, larger brain

What traits of birds make this clade highly derived...

single temporal fenestra, heterodont

What are the shared derived traits of synapsids?

ectothermic, predators, moved like ancestral amniotes

Describe a characteristic of a synapsid that was before the dinosaurs

more differentiated teeth, legs underneath them, more mammal like, predators

Describe the characteristics of Therapsids and Cynodonts

small insectivores, hair, nocturnal

What were early mammals like

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