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The most recent NSDUH results show that ______ use is more common among male youths compared to their female counterparts.


Passed in 2009 in Missouri, legislation known as _______ respresents one way to help reduce the dangers presented by drugs to children in the home.

Hope's Law

When first isolated in 1860, ______ became a staple of patent medicines.


_________is defined as having five or more alcoholic drinks on the same occasion on at least five different days in the past 30 days.

Heavy drinking

What are the results of ingesting herion?

relief from fear and apprehension, elevation of the spirits

By the 12th grade, _______ percent of American youth report that they have "been drunk."


James Inciardi and associates found that approximately ______ percent of youths who dealt crack were daily users.


Approximately how many alcohol-related deaths occur each year?


________ is the most widely abused anesthetic drug.

Phencyclidine (PCP)

According to the text, ________ produces short-term euphoria followed by a period of disorientation, slurred speech, and drowsiness.


It is generally believed that most drug users start at a young age using ___________ as a gateway drug.


Which substance stimulates the cerebral sensory centers to produce visual hallucinations, intensify hearing, and increase sensitivity?


The National Institute of Justice's ADAM Program reports that with the exception of __________, male detainees were more likely to test positive fo rthe use of any drug than were female detainees.


Enacted in 1992, the ________ Amendment requires states to enact and enforce laws restricting the sale of tobacco products to youths under the age of 18.


The 2009 Monitoring the Future survey indicates that _____________.

drug use among American adolescents continues to decline.

___________ therapy addresses a variety of family, peer, and psychological problems by focusing on problem solving and communication skills training.


It is estimated that Latin American countries, including Mexico, now supply upwards of _______ percent of the heroin consumed in the United States


________, such as Project ALERT, have been shown to be successful in training middle-school youths to avoid recreational drugs and to resist peer pressure to use cigarettes and alchohol.

Educational programs

A genetic basis for drug abuse is also supported by evidence showing that future substance abuse problems can be predicted by behavior exhibited as early as ________ years of age.


_______ has reclaimed its position as the world leader in opium production.


_________ programs reach out to some of the highest-risk youths.


The 2009 Monitoring the Future survey reported that the use of _________ increased 42 percent from the previous year for 10th grade students.


About _______ percent of the teenage population distributes multiple substances and commits both property and violent crimes; many are gang members.


A study of ________ found that the curriculum reduced the use of marijuana among teens who reported using at the start of the study, but increased the initiation of smoking and drinking among teens.

Take Charge of Your Life (TCYL)

Destroying overseas crops and arresting members of drug cartels is referred to as ___________.

source control

_______ refers to a care facility developed by the child savers to protect protential criminal youths by taking them off the street and providing a family-like environment.

House of refuge

Child saving organizations influenced the ______ to enact laws giving courts the power to commit children who were runaways or criminal offenders to specialized institutions.

state legislatures

The criminal trial is called a __________ in the juvenile justice system.


What was the purpose of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children?

To remove abused and neglected children from their home sand assist the court in making placement decisions.

The first juvenile court was established in __________.


When the juvenile court was first created, ______ was the standard of proof required to adjudicate a child delinquent.

preponderance of evidence

_______determined that a child has due process rights, such as having an attorney present at waiver hearings.

Kent v. United States

What do judges generally do with repeat juvenile offenders who are deemed untreatable by juvenile authorities?

The child is transferred to an adult court

Secure pre-trial holding facilities for juveniles are called _______.

detention centers

__________ refers to the trial stage of the juvenile court process.


On average, _______ juvenile delinquency cases are adjudicated annually.

1.7 Million

A _______ refers to a court appointed individual who protects the interest of the child in cases involving the child's welfare.

guardian ad litem

The juvenile court did not include a prosecutor in its first 60 years of existence because ________.

the court followed a social service helping model

Project Confirm in New York City is one example of an effort to reduce the detention of ________ who have been arrested.

foster care youth

The U.S. Supreme Court case, _______, upheld the concept of preventive detention of juveniles.

Schall v. Martin

The formal complaint that initiates judicial actions against a juvenile charged with delinquency or a status offense is called the __________.


On average, ________ percent of juvenile cases are waived to adult court by the juvenile court each year.

less than 0.5

In _______ the U.S. Supreme Court ruling prevented a juvenile from being tried in two courts (adult and juvenile), holding that to do so is a violation of the double jeopardy clause.

Breed v. Jones

The hearing held in juvenile court to determine the merits of the petition claiming that a child is either a delinquent youth or in need of court supervision is referred to as _____________.


The amount of proof required in a juvenile delinquency adjudication is beyond a reasonable doubt was the holding of the Court in ________.

In re Winship

In _______, the Court held that juveniles do not have a constitutional right to a jury.

McKeiver v. Pennsylvania

_______ afforded juveniles the right to counsel.

In re Gault

__________ mandated that juveniles have a right to notice of the allegations made against them.

Graham v. Florida

In ________, the U.S. Supreme Court held that the death penalty for juveniles was unconstitutional.

Roper v. Simmons

Judges follow the probation department recommendations ______ of the time.


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