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48 terms

Sociology Final

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When sociologists group people into categories based on their age, gender, educational level, job, and income, they are trying to determine ________.
social location
While the intended consequence of attending college is to obtain an education to prepare for entry into the job market, college also provides a "mate selection market" wherein students may meet prospective marriage partners. This market represents what Merton would describe as a:
latent function.
__________ spent his lifetime studying relations between African Americans and whites in an effort to eliminate social injustice.
W. E. B. DuBois
The sociologist who studied life in both the United States and Great Britain and documented the results of this research in the book Society in America was:
Harriet Martineau.
__________ was the first person to propose that the scientific method could be applied to the study of social life
Auguste Comte
The degree to which people are tied to their social groups is referred to by Emile Durkheim as:
social integration
Karl Marx believed that ________ was the central force for social change, while Max Weber believed that ________ was the force most responsible for social change.
economics; religion
Of the following, which theoretical perspective in sociology least qualifies as an example of macro-level analysis?
symbolic interactionism
Mark views society as a system of interrelated parts, while John views society as composed of groups competing for scarce resources. Mark would be considered a __________ theorist and John would be seen as a __________ theorist.
functionalist; conflict
The titles Karl Marx used to describe the two classes in society were the ________ and the ________
bourgeoisie; proletariat
It is not uncommon for violence to accompany clashes between members of planned parenthood programs and those devoted to pro-life efforts. What term would sociologists use to describe this values clash?
culture war
Which set of concepts best illustrates nonmaterial culture?
beliefs, values, norms
In the mid 1960s there was a serious contradiction in social values in America. On one hand, America stood for freedom, democracy, and equality. But there were also pockets of racism, group superiority, and individualism. As a result of this value contradiction, what was the outcome?
It was an impetus for social change.
Mark is a foreign exchange student living with a Chinese family. The first night he was with them his hosts served a delicious entree of meat and vegetables. Although tasty, Mark could not identify the meat. When his host told him it was roast dog Mark became upset and decided to become a vegetarian for the course of his stay. In view of this, which sociological concept did Mark just experience?
culture shock
Marshall is exploring how the various aspects of the Lenape culture fit together including their religion, family values, agricultural efforts, and customs without judging those elements as being inferior or superior to modern Western ways. In doing so, what sociological practice is Marshall practicing?
cultural relativism
When American servicemen occupied Japan following World War II, the Japanese watched the Americans playing baseball, appreciated the sport, and adopted it themselves. Today, baseball is one of the most popular sports in Japan. This adoption of baseball by the Japanese is an example of ________.
cultural diffusion
Wayne always wears a lapel pin on his suit signifying that he was the recipient of the Medal of Honor when he was in the service. Usually, only veterans recognize what the pin actually means. In view of this, which of the following terms best describes Wayne's lapel pin?
It is a symbol to which people attach meaning.
"Sunny" is a professional shoplifter. "Walker" is a member of the Devil's Disciples and an avid Satan worshipper. In view of this, which statement is most correct regarding "Sunny" and "Walker"?
Both Sunny and Walker belong to countercultures.
Mark and Sally went walking in the park. Both of them were wearing nothing on the upper half of their bodies. In American culture, Mark would be violating a ________ and Sally would be violating a ________.
folkway; more
The Smiths are going Christmas shopping for their two children, Dick and Jane. They plan to buy Dick a Tonka truck and Jane a Barbie doll. Their selection of toys for their children is an example of __________ by parents
gender socialization
Billy is in the play stage and likes to dress up like Spiderman and "save" his stuffed animals from the bad guys.
Mead's cognitive development theory
Jane has chosen an outfit for the dance that she thinks looks great, when her friend sees her, she makes a negative comment about Jane's outfit. Jane now feels like she has no sense of fashion.
Cooley's Looking Glass Self
Isolated children like Genie and the Harlow experiments with primates show us this is important in human behavior and development.
Nurture
Studies that involve identical twins separated at birth show us the importance of this in human behavior and development.
Nature
A women who has been a stay at home mother and wife for 25 years gets divorced and has to go to school to learn skills to get a job, she has to learn to take care of all finances.
resocialization
College students often get internships during the summer in their chosen field.
anticipatory socialization
We learn values from religion, we learn to be patriotic in school, we learn to play fair on the scoccer field.
agents of socialization
When Sally turned 21 years old, she tried to drink 21 shots of liquor, which is dangerous and can result in alcohol poisioning.
rite of passage
What term applies to the mechanisms society develops to meet its basic needs, such as family, religion, education, and medicine?
social institutions
A[n] ________ designates social position while a[n] ________ designates socially expected behavior.
status; role
Chester was recently paroled after serving a prison sentence for child molesting. A condition of parole was that Chester place a state-issued sign in his yard stating, "Warning: A Convicted Sex Offender Lives Here." In view of this, what term best describes the sign Chester has placed is his yard?
It is a status symbol.
Gemeinschaft is to "intimate community" as Gesellschaft is to ________.
impersonal association
Leo is a college graduate, cello teacher, and a member of Who's Who Among Students in American Colleges and Universities. What are these accomplishments collectively called?
his achieved statuses
Cordell Walker is a Texas ranger, a husband, a father, a good friend to many, and a martial artist. Together, what term do sociologists use for the titles that apply to Ranger Walker?
status set
Alice is getting ready for an interview with a potential employer. She has picked out a blazer and skirt and has had her hair done at the beauty shop. Alice is relying on her manner and her appearance to communicate to the employer that she would be an excellent employee. What term would Goffman use to describe Alice's behavior?
impression management
Connie is an 82-year-old retired full professor taking undergraduate courses in deviance, criminology, and juvenile delinquency. Which sociological term most applies to Connie being 82 and an undergraduate student?
status inconsistency
What term describes a position in life that one does not choose, but is awarded at birth or is related to the life course?
ascribed status
Which of the following statements summarizes the Thomas theorem?
If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences.
When Peter Rossi and the National Opinion Research Center studied the homeless, it was necessary for them to develop a practical and accurate description to determine exactly what constituted being homeless. This description would be classified as a(n) ________.
operational definition
In the statement, "Poverty causes crime," the words "poverty" and "crime" are best described as ________ because they are subject to change.
variables
What are the three qualities on which research ethics is based?
honesty; truth; openness
Max has developed the hypothesis that the stress felt by unemployed men increases the probability of spousal abuse. In this case, stress would be considered the ________ variable and spousal abuse would be considered the ________ variable.
independent; dependent
Dr. Zimbardo is examining the effect that pornographic movies have on the ways in which single men respond to the needs of women. He has one group of men watch pornographic films and another watch Three Stooges episodes. He then tests their reactions to women in need by showing them short film clips and following up with a series of questions. What research method is Dr. Zimbardo using?
the experiment
What is the defining characteristic of a random sample?
It gives each person in the population of interest an equal chance of being chosen.
arod is conducting research on the homeless. For six weeks, he has lived among the homeless "24/7," sleeping on the street or at a shelter, and engaging in the same activities as the population he is studying. By doing so, Jarod has been able to gather a broad understanding of the homeless, their needs, and characteristics. In view of this, Jarod is using ________ as a method of gathering data.
participant observation
In addition to choosing the appropriate research method, sociologists must follow research _______ to achieve truth, honesty, and openness.
ethics
Which of the following statements is the best example of a hypothesis?
"Unemployed men are more likely to commit spousal abuse than employed men."
Tiffany has a keen interest in the original theories of William Sheldon regarding the relationship between body type and juvenile delinquency. She has duplicated the study using Sheldon's original methodology to see if her results are compatible to Sheldon's. Such a study illustrates the concept of ________.
replication