Looking at Movies: Chapter 10


Terms in this set (...)

the aesthetic approach
sometimes called the masterpiece approach or great man approach, the aesthetic approach seeks to evaluate individual movies and/or directors using criteria that asserts their artistic significance and influence.
historians who use this approach do not necessarily ignore the economic, technological, and cultural aspects of film history
the technological approach
all art forms have a technological history that records the advancements in materials and techniques that have affected the nature of the medium
of all the arts, cinema seems to be the one most reliant on technology
study major developments (the introduction of sound, the moving camera, deep focus cinematography, color film stock, and digital cinematography, projection)
examine circumstances surrounding the development of each technological advancement
the economic approach
motion-picture industry is a major part of the global economy
every movie released has an economic history of its own as well as a place in the economic history of its studio (policies of production, distribution, and exhibition) and the historical period and country in which it was produced
historians study this to help us to understand how and why the studio system was founded, how it adapted to changing conditions (economic, technological, social, historical), and how and why different studios took different approaches to producing different movies, how these movies have been distributed and exhibited, and what effect this had on film history
they study how and why the independent system of production superseded the studio system and what effect this has had on production, distribution, and exhibition
They are also concerned with such related issues as management and organization, accounting, and marketing practices, and censorship and the rating system.
Finally they try to place significant movies within the output of the industry in general and the producing studio in particular
the social history approach
because society and culture influence the movies, and vice versa, the movies serve as primary sources for studying society
writing about movies as social history continues to be a major preoccupation of journalists, scholars, and students alike
historians study who made the movies and why? Who saw the films, how, and why? What has seen, how, and why? How were movies evaluated, by whom, and why?
consider factors such as religion, politics, cultural trends, and taboos
to what extent a movie swayed or effects social change
interested in audience composition, marketing, and critical writing, and reviewing in the media, from gossip magazine to scholarly books
they study the complex interaction between the movies-as a social institution-and other social institutions including government, religion, and labor
literally means "writing with light"
developed during the first four decades of the nineteenth century by Thomas Wedgwood, William Henry Fox Talbot, and Sir John Herschel in England; Joseph-Nicephore Niece and Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre in France; and George Eastman in the United States
camera obscura
the concept had its beginnings in Ancient Greece. in the fourth century BCE, the Greek philosopher Aristotle theorized about a device that would later be known as this.
in the late fifteenth century Leonardo da Vinci's drawings gave tangible form to the idea. Both simple and ingenues, this may be. box or it may be a room large enough for a viewer to stand inside. Light entering the tiny hole (later a lens) on one side of the box or room projects an image from outside the opposite side or wall. An artist might then trace the image onto a piece of paper
Wedgewood made the first recorded attempt to produce photographs in 1802
however these were not camera images as we known them, but basically silhouettes of objects placed on paper or leather sensitized with chemicals and exposed to light
these images faded quickly for Wedgewood did not known how to fix (stabilize) them.
Unaware of Wedgewood's work, Talbot devised a chemical method for recording the images he observed in his camera obscura
more important was the significant process he made toward fixing an image, and he invented this, or negative photography image on transparent material, that makes possible the reproduction of the image
Niece experimented with sunlight and the camera obscura to make photographs from nature. The results of the heliographic (sun-drawn) process-crude paper prints-were not particularly successful. But Niepce's discoveries influenced Daguerre, who by 1837, was able to create, on a copper plate treated with chemicals an image remarkable to its fidelity and hypo (short for hyposulfote thiosulfate, or sodium thiosulfate), a compound that fixed the image on paper and thus arrested the effect of light on it. Herschel first used the word photography in 1839 in a lecture
series photography
records the phases of an action
revolver photographique
or chronophotographic gun, a cylinder-shaped camera that creates exposures automatically, at short intervals, on different segments of a revolving plate
Janssen, a French astronomer developed this
magic lantern and zoopraxiscope
Muybridge, an English photographer working in California
early projector and the following is a version of this, with a revolving disc that had his photographs arranged around the center
fusil photograph
another form of of chronophotographic gun, a single, portable camera capable of taking twelve continuous images
In 1882, Marey, a French physiologist did this
Muybridge and Mary collaborated in Paris, but each was more interested in using the process. for his own scientific studies than for making or projecting motion pictures and such
Matey's invention solved the problems created by Maybridge's use of battery of cameras, but the series was limited to forty images-a total of 3 to 4 seconds
the first motion-picture camera created in 1891 by William Kennedy Laurie Dickson, working with associates in Thomas Edison's research laboratory
a peephole viewer
Black Maria
Edison's staff made the movies in here in this hack. It was really the first movie studio, for it contained the camera, technicians, and actors
the camera was limited by its motion, able only to move closer to or away from the subject or trolley
1908-1927 origins of the classical Hollywood style-the silent period
the movie's form should not draw attention to oneself (narrative, cinematography, editing, sound, acting, and so forth)
narrative should be economical and seamless
the presentation of the narrative should occur in a cinematic language with which the audience is familiar
moved away from short films to feature films
1919-1931 German Expressionism
after The First World War
Germany suffered a humiliating defeat
New Democratic government emerged
determined to reject the cinematic past and ethusiastically embrace the avant-grande-experimental and different-contrasting with society
1918-1930 French Avant-Garde Filmmaking
looked to Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud, but also from the experimental French filmmakers who preceded them
three different types:
1. short dadaist-photomontage-art movement and surrealist films of an anticonventional, absurdist nature
2. short naturalistic psychological studies
3. feature length films that also emphasize pure visual form
1924-1930 The Soviet Montage Movement
along with the German Expressionist Film Movement, one of the twin points of Cinematic experimentation
belief in the power of montage (they adopted the French word for "editing") to fragment and reassemble footage so as to manipulate the viewer's perception and understanding
1927-1931 Classical Hollywood Style in Hollywood's Golden Age
moved over to talkies
Mr. Smith Goes to Washington
Gone with the Wind
1942-1951 Italian Neorealism
developed during the Second World War, neorealism rose to prominence after the war and then flourished for a relatively short period before ending abruptly
Italian neorealism (Italian: Neorealismo), also known as the Golden Age of Italian Cinema, is a national film movement characterized by stories set amongst the poor and the working class, filmed on location, frequently using non-professional actors
Benito Mussolini-fascist dictator- put propaganda films out there, American films were banned
after his execution in 1945, Italian cinema as revitalized
1959-1964 French New Wave
After the Second World War, France, had been occupied by the Nazis between 1940 and 1944, faced a unique set of problems both foreign and domestic
influenced by poetic realism-term that applied to the movies that treated everyday life with a moody sensitivity to the rise-en-scene as well as to the more contemporary films of Jean-Pierre Melville
influenced by philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre-believed that contemporary artists should rebel against the constraints of society, traditional morality, and religious faith; should accept personal responsibility for their own actions; and should thus be free to create their own world
and thirdly, Alexandre Astru-directior and film critic-said that filmmakers should use the camera as personally as a novelist would use a pen
a filmmaker whose personal influence and artistic control over a movie are so great that the filmmaker is regarded as the author of the movie.
England and the Free Cinema Movement
The British Free Cinema movement developed between 1956 and 1959
rejected class bound society
didn't worry about demands of prouder and distributors and any commercial factors
entirely the expression of people who made them
served as a growing post war movement in Europe toward a new cinema of social realism