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sociology test part 2

________ are the social ties that radiate outward from the self and link people together.
Social networks
What did Stanley Milgram's teacher-learner experiment demonstrate?
A substantial number of people will inflict pain on others if ordered to do so by a person in a position of authority.
Which phrase became synonymous with the research Stanley Milgram conducted on "the small world phenomenon"?
six degrees of separation
Because of our sense of belonging and loyalty to in-groups, we often judge our own group's traits as virtues, but view the same traits in other groups as vices. This judgment of superiority is an example of ________.
a double standard
For many college professors, their own teachers served as role models. Kody Scott looked up to older gang members as his idols. In both cases, former teachers and older gang members qualify as being ________.
reference groups
Sociologically, what term best applies to a group of people who share no common destination taking an elevator from the first floor of a large high rise?
an aggregate
Kody is a member of the L.A. Crips. The other gangs in his territory are the Bloods and Satan's Slaves. Kody feels very antagonistic towards the Bloods and the Slaves. For Kody, these two rival gangs would be considered ________.
There are New York Yankee fans in every state in America, throughout Canada, and in nations all over the world. Sociologically, which concept best describes these fans?
They are a category.
A leader of a group whose responsibility would be to keep the group moving towards its goal is classified as a(n) ________ leader.
What did Solomon Asch's experiment on group conformity demonstrate?
Because of group pressure, most people are willing to say things they know are not true.
Samantha works for an organization that is hierarchical and has a division of labor, written rules, communications and records, one in which the administration treats workers impersonally. Based on these characteristics, we can conclude that Samantha works for a(n) ________.
It is becoming more common for corporations to provide daycare facilities as a fringe benefit for their employees. What has evaluative research found regarding the costs and benefits of these facilities?
Operating on-site daycare reduces employee absenteeism, improves production, and increases staff morale.
The use of video cameras to peer over employees' shoulders, the monitoring of air quality within the workplace, and the prohibiting of smoking by employees anywhere on company property is what sociologist Gary Marx calls ________.
a maximum-security society
The Ku Klux Klan, March of Dimes, and Boy Scouts of America all have specific objectives that guide their operations. Even though their respective activities and membership rosters indicate significant differences, all three would share the classification of being ________.
formal organizations
Most major companies sponsor "diversity training" lectures and workshops for their employees. What is the ultimate purpose of these efforts?
to increase company profits and competitiveness
The experience of being cut off from the product of one's labor, which results in a feeling of powerlessness, is called ________.
Hank lives in a society that believes in the acceptance of rules, efficiency, and practical results. Frank lives in a society that believes in customs and close personal relationships. Which society is more likely to be industrialized?
The society that believes in rules, efficiency, and practical results will be industrialized.
The early theorist who proposed that religious beliefs are the key to whether or not a society embraces capitalism was ________.
Max Weber
Bob works at an automobile factory that organizes its workers into small groups that meet regularly to discuss ways to increase production and efficiency. Individual workers are often singled out and recognized for their contributions to the organization. These are examples of attempts to ________.
humanize the work setting to develop employee potential
When the former Soviet Union collapsed, NATO forces were no longer needed to protect Europe from a communist invasion. Rather than disband NATO, it was turned into a "rapid response force" to fight terrorism. Sociologists would call this shift in focus an example of ________.
goal displacement
The passage of "three strikes and you're out" laws has, in some cases, resulted in mandatory life imprisonment sentences for relatively minor offenses. Such outcomes illustrate what functional theorists describe as
unintended consequences.
A specific form of deviance that involves the violation of rules that have been written into law is called __________.
Every human group develops a system of formal and informal social controls to enforce norms and discourage deviance. They do so because deviance __________.
undermines predictability, a necessity for social life
Hate crimes are offenses that:
are a result of an individual's general sense of bias against a particular group.
In terms of economic costs, __________ crimes are considerably higher than __________ crimes.
white-collar; street
Merton's __________ theory is based on the idea that most people want to attain cultural goals, but not everyone has the legitimate means of achieving them.
Sociologist Howard S. Becker, notes that deviance is defined __________.
by the reaction of others to the behavior
Labels open and close the doors of opportunity for people. Once a person is labeled a deviant, often the person is __________.
forced to have almost exclusive contact with other deviants
The main idea of control theory is that most people have strong desires to be deviant, but two systems work against their motivation to deviate. These two systems are termed __________.
inner and outer controls
A theorist who sees the law as an instrument of repression and a tool designed to maintain the powerful in their privileged positions would be considered a(n) __________ theorist.
Which of the following statements is least true regarding the concept of ideology versus force as a means to maintain stratification?
Coercion is as effective as ideology, but it is expensive and creates false consciousness.
Historically, which of the following was the leastlikely cause for a person to be enslaved?
for being of a specific race
_________ is a major means of control used by the neocolonialists to maintain global stratification.
Debt, with ever mounting interest
Social position in the caste system is based on __________.
ascribed status
For Marx, ownership of __________ was the primary factor which distinguished the different classes under industrial capitalism.
the means of production
Harold is a CEO of a large corporation and earns $250,000 a year. Regis is a television game show host who earns well over $6,000,000 a year. Functionalist logic would force us to conclude that:
game show hosts contribute more to societal survival than CEOs.
Social __________ is the division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige.
India's caste system was based on __________.
According to Weber, social class is actually made up of three components; __________.
property, power, and prestige
A significant difference among the class system and the systems of slavery and caste is that the class system has relatively __________ boundaries.
__________ are the most likely segment of the population in the United States to experience poverty today.
Phil, a janitor for an expensive apartment-house complex in Chicago, is a union janitor who makes quite a bit more money than many of the tenants in the building he maintains. Lenski would note that Phil's high income but low occupational prestige demonstrates a condition of
status inconsistency.
John worked at a steel mill for 25 years. A recessionary economy and competition with foreign steelmakers forced the closing of the mill. At the age of 45, John is unable to find work in his town, lives in poverty and must go on welfare. The causes of John's poverty are:
changes in the social structure.
Which of the following statements best reflects the reality of income inequality in the United States over the past 60 years?
Incomes of the poor have declined while the incomes of the rich have increased.
Jeanann and her two children are on welfare. Research indicates that it is likely that Jeanann and her children will be in poverty for __________.
a year or less
According to the __________ perspective, the Horatio Alger myth helps to stabilize society and reduces the pressures to change the system to reduce poverty.
If 100 working-class people move upward on the class ladder and, at the same time, 100 middle class people experience downward mobility, sociologists would consider this to be an example of __________ mobility.
From the 1930s until now, sociologists have found that the mental health of the lower classes is worse than that of the higher classes. One explanation for these differences is that the poor __________.
experience greater stress in their lives
The __________ is the term that refers to a trend in U.S. poverty whereby most poor families are headed by women
feminization of poverty
After spending considerable time observing the way people on welfare lived, the author of your textbook concludes that poverty is the result of __________.
both structural and personal characteristics
For any solution to be effective in reducing violence against women in the United States, what is the first hurdle that must be accomplished
Any connections between violence and masculinity must be broken.
The unequal access to power, prestige, and property based on a person's sex defines:
gender stratification.
Based on the accident that led to the sex change of a seven-month-old identical twin as well as the Vietnam veterans' study, which statement is most accurate regarding the effects of nature and nurture on behavior?
Human behavior is the result of nature and nurture working together.
Agatha has worked for ten years in the public relations department of a large firm. She has been promoted to several higher paying managerial positions, but never to an executive position, even though she has directed several successful projects for the firm. Her lack of promotion most likely illustrates ________.
the "glass ceiling"
Why are women classified as a minority group?
Women are discriminated against based on physical or cultural characteristics
What is the philosophy that biology is not destiny, especially with regard to justifying gender stratification?
Which of the following statements best describes how most sociologists believe behavioral gender differences develop between men and women?
Gender differences are based on social factors
Which statement best summarizes the relationship between killers and their victims?
Men outnumber women as both victims and killers.
While the notion of gender refers to sociological characteristics, the concept of sex refers to ________ characteristics.