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50 terms

sociology part 3

STUDY
PLAY
Long Island residents who depend upon Salvadoran laborers for landscaping services but pass laws to prevent them from living in the same community are practicing:
segregation
Sam, a bartender who saw duty in Vietnam, refuses to serve Asians in his bar because he believes that Asians have no business living in the U.S.A. Sam's actions describe:
prejudice and discrimination.
Switzerland is made up of three separate ethnic groups which have kept their own languages but are peacefully united politically and economically. This pattern of intergroup relations is an example of __________.
multiculturalism
The relocation of Native Americans to reservations and the transfer of Americans of Japanese descent to internment camps during World War II are examples of ________.
direct transfer
Juan, an Hispanic, and Harold, a white male, have each applied for a home mortgage at the local bank. Juan's loan was turned down while Harold's loan was given to him. In comparing their credit history, both men had good credit, and their debts and income were comparable. This is an example of __________ against Juan
institutional discrimination
As described in the text, what are the two myths of race?
one race is superior to another; pure races exist
The terms Latino and Hispanic refer to a(n) __________ group
ethnic
_________ is the systematic annihilation or attempted annihilation of a people based on their presumed race or ethnicity.
Genocide
Prejudice describes __________ while discrimination describes __________.
attitudes; actions
Of all the minority groups in the United States, __________ are the worst off in terms of poverty, life expectancy, suicide and alcoholism.
Native Americans
Theorists who believe that corporations use profit as their moral guide, with no concern for how opening and closing factories affects workers, are most aligned with which sociological perspective?
the conflict perspective
Economic activities, illegal or legal, that people do not report to the government are sometimes referred to as the ________ economy.
underground
What theory is based on the idea that the two economic systems - capitalism and socialism - will eventually adopt features of one another until there is a hybrid economic system in all societies?
convergence theory
Sociologists use the term "________" to refer to the fundamental changes in society that occur as a result of vast numbers of women entering the workforce.
quiet revolution
The "global village" refers to ________.
the linking of the world's nations by fast communications, trade, and transportation
Frank Buckman sits on the board of directors for seven oil companies and three corporations that manufacture oil rigs and oil-producing machinery. Several of his closest business associates belong to the same boards. Such a scenario is an example of a(n) ________.
interlocking directorate
What is the primary criticism leveled against capitalism?
It leads to severe social inequalities.
In the United States, government interventions that restrict a person's ability to immediately produce and sell a product that he or she has discovered or invented are referred to as ________.
market restraints
At the marketplace, Blossom brings pastries that she bakes to exchange for clothing. David brings chickens to trade for Blossom's pastries. What medium of exchange does this illustrate?
barter
Today, most governments issue money that is backed by nothing more than a promise to honor it for all debts public and private. Such currency is called ________.
fiat money
In the United States what is the diffusion among many different organizations including conservatives and liberals and special interest groups that prohibits any one group from gaining total control?
pluralism
What is an organization that solicits contributions from many donors then uses the large total to influence legislation?
political action committee
In the United States, we elect candidates whom we believe will best represent our interests in our state capitals and in Washington, D.C. This is an example of:
representative democracy.
Which of the following types of government does Hitler's Nazi Germany and Saddam Hussein's regime in Iraq best illustrate?
totalitarianism
John F. Kennedy had a combination of ideal types of leadership. Although he was the President of the United States, he also inspired people to get involved with their country's programs simply because they were Americans. President Kennedy is an example of combining __________ authority.
charismatic and rational-legal
charismatic and rational-legal
rational-legal
Carl lives in a small New England town where he and other residents attend monthly town meetings. At these meetings they publicly vote on issues concerning the town. These monthly town meetings are an example of __________ democracy.
direct
Marcus has not voted for the last 15 years because he feels that the political system has never done anything positive for him so his vote really would not affect his life one way or the other. It appears that Marcus is feeling __________.
alienated
According to C. Wright Mills, the important decisions in the United States are made by the __________.
power elite
What were the three conditions identified by Nicholas Timasheff that are essential to incite war?
An antagonistic situation, cultural tradition of war, a fuel to heat the antagonism.
Theprimary source of strain in the typical one-parent family is __________.
poverty, since 90 percent are headed by women
In India, about 95 percent of the marriages are arranged by the parents; in the United States, most marriages are based on individual choice. These differences in marriage practices support the sociological principle that __________.
a society's marriage practices match societal values
The amount of work women put in after they get home from working eight hours a day for wages was described by Hochschild as the working wife's "__________."
second shift
Boomerang children is a term used to refer to children ________.
who have moved out as young adults, then return to live with their parents
Zachary's parents were divorced three years ago. During the first year after the divorce, Zachary's father visited him every week. Then Zachary's father remarried and fathered another child. Now he rarely visits Zachary. This situation is an example of __________.
serial fatherhood
Which of the following variables has the strongest influence on the variations found in American family life?
social class
One of the most significant trends in U.S. marriages is that the average first-time bride and groom is __________ than at any time in U.S. history
older
Which of the following statements about divorce in the United States is correct?
All of these statements are correct
In Bongo Bongo, male members of the tribe may each legally have three wives. This is a family relationship defined as ________
polygyny
Violence against women is related to the __________.
sexist structure of society and socialization
When employers use diplomas and degrees to determine who is eligible for jobs, even through the diploma or degree may be irrelevant to the actual work, it becomes a ________ society
credential
One of the functions performed by schools is to mold all students into a more or less cohesive unit. This function is referred to as __________
social integration
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania is one of the largest "wheelchair" universities in the United States, providing access of all programs to all students and establishing special wheelchair programs in sports competition. This is an example of ________.
mainstreaming
According to conflict theorists, the hidden curriculum perpetuates __________.
social inequalities
What do studies demonstrate in regard to the level of social skills home schooled students develop?
Home-schooled students are equal or do better than conventional schooled students.
Using exceptionally simple questions on an exam and "dummying down" grading scales so everyone passes are examples of a growing problem in education called ________.
mediocrity
What is the central sociological principle of education as it relates to a nation's needs?
It is a reflection of the nation's culture and economy.
According to functionalists social placement or tracking of students is beneficial to society because it ensures that the more capable people fill positions requiring __________.
higher intellectual levels
In a study of teacher expectations, sociologist George Farkas found that females and Asian Americans averaged higher course grades even though the scores on course work were the same for all students no matter the race/ethnicity or gender. What did Farkas conclude was the reason for this finding?
They knew how to signal teachers by being more eager and cooperative.
What is the concept that some jobs require few skills and can be performed by people of less intelligence?
social placement