Terms in this set (105)
endosymbiosisA symbiotic relationship in which one symbiont lives permanently within another organism. Organelles in cells such as plastids and mitochondria.eukaryotic cellA cell with internal structures such as mitochondria and an internal membrane-bounded nucleus containing chromosomes. (See also prokaryotic cell)granite?gneiss complexThe most common association of Archean age rocks.Great Oxygenation EventAn event that took place about 2.4 billion years ago when Earth's atmosphere became richer in free oxygen as a result of photochemical dissociation and, more importantly, photosynthesis.greenstone beltA linear or podlike association of igneous and sedimentary rocks particularly common in Archean terrains.Grenville orogenyAn episode of deformation that took place in the eastern United States and Canada during the Neoproterozoic.heterotrophicAny organism that depends on preformed organic molecules from its environment for nutrients. (See also autotrophic)LaurentiaA Proterozoic continent composed of North America, Greenland, parts of Scotland, and perhaps part of the Baltic shield of Scandinavia.Midcontinent riftA Late Proterozoic rift in Laurentia in which volcanic and sedimentary rocks accumulated.monomerA comparatively simple organic molecule, such as an amino acid, that can link with other monomers to form more complex polymers such as proteins.multicelled organismAny organism made up of many cells, as opposed to a single cell; possesses cells specialized to perform specific functions.orogenA linear part of Earth's crust that was, or is, being deformed during an orogeny; part of an orogenic belt.outgassingThe process whereby gases released from Earth's interior by volcanism formed an atmosphere and hydrosphere.PannotiaA supercontinent that existed during the Neoproterozoic.photochemical dissociationThe process by which water molecules in the upper atmosphere are disrupted by ultraviolet radiation to yield free oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2).photosynthesisThe metabolic process in which organic molecules are synthesized from water and carbon dioxide, using the radiant energy of the Sun captured by chlorophyll-containing cells.platformThe part of a craton that lies buried beneath flat-lying or mildly deformed sedimentary rocks.polymerA comparatively complex organic molecule, such as nucleic acids and proteins, formed by monomers linking together. (See also monomer)prokaryotic cellA cell that lacks a nucleus and organelles such as mitochondria and plastids; the cells of bacteria and cyanobacteria. (See also eukaryotic cell)RodiniaThe name of a Neoproterozoic supercontinent.sandstone-carbonate-shale assemblageAn association of sedimentary rocks typically found on passive continental margins during the Proterozoic Eon.shieldA vast area of exposed ancient rocks on a continent; the exposed part of a craton.stromatoliteA biogenic sedimentary structure, especially in limestone, produced by the entrapment of sediment on sticky mats of photosynthesizing bacteria.Wilson cycleThe opening and then closing of an ocean basin as a result of plate movements.events during this period laid the groundwork for the evolution of lifePrecambrian is important to the history of Earth because ________ .Earth was hot and waterlessHow is primitive Earth described during the Hadean?cratonsDuring continental accretion, additional crust was added to the boundaries of the continental foundations, called ________ .granite-gneiss complexesThe majority of the Archean crust is composed of ________ .back-arc basinThe Lau basin, an actively volcanic area, is located in the southwest Pacific ocean between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate, and flanked by the Lau Ridge/Lau Islands to the west and the Tonga Ridge/Tonga Islands and the Tofua arc to the east. The Lau basin can therefore be classified as adeformation belts between colliding cratonsEvidence, such as ________ , supports the theory that plate movement occurred during the Archean.Wilson cycleDuring a(n) ________ , crust thinning caused by continental rifting results in the opening of an ocean basin. This is followed by sediment buildup along its margins and subduction, resulting in the eventual closing of this ocean basin.the Grenville orogenyThe last stage in the formation of Laurentia was ________ .RodiniaAccording to geologists, the first supercontinent on Earth wasGlacial deposits________ are evidence of two major glaciations episodes that occurred during the Paleoproterozoic.photosynthesis and photochemical dissociationThe increase in free oxygen level on Earth from about 1% to 10% of present levels during the Proterozoic Eon was due to the processes of ________ .the Great Oxygenation EventThe precipitation of ocean iron to form banded iron formations and the presence of continental red beds covered by iron oxide cement is evidence of ________ .RNA may have functioned as the first reproductive mechanismThe theory of abiogenesis is supported by many lines of evidence. What is one of these?stromatolitesThe earliest evidence of life on Earth is provided by the presence of ________ , which form from the residue of photosynthetic cyanobacteria.the presence of organelles inside eukaryotic cells, which contain DNA and are capable of independent protein synthesisEvidence for the theory of endosymbiosis, which describes the evolution of eukaryotic cells, includes ________ .21)appearance of skeletal animalsThe Cambrian explosion was characterized by the ________ .protection from predatorsOne of the evolutionary advantages of having an exoskeleton is ________ .pelagic, nektonOcean fish are classified as ________ .primary producersPhotosynthetic phytoplankton are classified as ________ .Trilobites________ , which swam or crawled along the seafloor feeding on sediment deposits, comprised approximately half of the Cambrian fauna.There was an increase in total shelly fauna due to the diversification of brachiopods, as well as the evolution of other marine invertebrate phyla by adaptive radiation.Why is the period of evolution during the Ordovician known as "The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event"?marine transgressions over cratonsThe repopulation of Silurian and Devonian reef communities after the Ordovician mass extinction was most likely caused, in part, by ________ .increased oceanic CO2 levels and corresponding oxygen-poor ocean waterMany theories have been proposed to explain the Permian mass extinction event, including ________ .radial cleavage during embryonic development in both echinoderms and chordatesThe close evolutionary relationship between echinoderms and chordates is supported by ________jawsAcanthodian fossils provided the first evidence of the appearance of ________ , which allowed for enhanced predation and respiration.navigating water habitats that were crowded with plants and debrisScientists believed that limbs evolved for the purpose of ________ .wrist bones, five digits, and a modified ear regionTiktaalik roseae is an important link between the lobe-finned fishes and the true tetrapods in the evolution of land animals because it had ________ .the ability to regulate body temperatureIn the evolution of reptiles, the distinguishing feature of therapsids was ________ , which allowed them to populate wide-ranging habitats.lignin and celluloseThe evolution of vascular, terrestrial plants required the appearance of ________ , which provided the strength and support necessary for plants to remain upright.Seedless vascular plants________ were the first vascular terrestrial plants, which evolved structures similar to modern plants by mosaic evolution.amniote eggEgg in which the embryo develops in a fluid-filled cavity called the amnion. The egg also contains a yolk sac and a waste sac.benthosThose organisms that live on or in the bottom sediments of seas or lakes.bony fishFish with an internal skeleton of bone; the class Osteichthyes.carnivore-scavengerAny animal that depends on other animals, living or dead, for nutrients.cartilaginous fishSharks, rays, and skates and their extinct relatives that have an internal skeleton of cartilage.chordateAnimals of the phylum Chordata; all have a notochord, dorsal hollow nerve cord, and pharyngeal pouches at some time during their life cycle.crossopterygianA specific type of lobe-finned fish that had lungs; the ancestors of amphibians.gymnospermA flowerless, seed-bearing plant.herbivoreAn animal that depends directly on plants as a source of nutrients.labyrinthodontAny of the Devonian to Triassic amphibians characterized by teeth with complexly folded enamel.nektonActively swimming organisms, such as fish, whales, and squidostracodermThe "bony-skinned" fish characterized by bony armor but no jaws or teeth; appeared during the Late Cambrian, making them the oldest known vertebrates.pelycosaurPennsylvanian to Permian reptiles that had some mammal characteristics; many species had large fins on the back.placodermLate Silurian through Permian "plate-skinned" fish with jaws and bony armor, especially in the head and shoulder area.primary producerOrganism in a food chain, such as a bacterium or green plant, that manufactures its own organic molecules, and on which other members of the food chain depend for sustenance. (See also Describes organisms that synthesize organic molecules from inorganic raw materials, as in photosynthesis.protorothyridsA loosely grouped category of small lizardlike reptiles that include the earliest reptiles.sediment-deposit feederAnimal that ingests sediment and extracts nutrients from it.seedless vascular plantA plant with specialized tissues for transporting fluids and nutrients that reproduces by spores rather than seeds, as in ferns and horsetail rushes.suspension feederAnimal that consumes microscopic plants and animals or dissolved nutrients from water.therapsidPermian to Triassic mammal-like reptiles; the ancestors of mammals are among one group of therapsids known as cynodonts.VascularThe specialized tissue found in most land plants for transporting nutrients and fluids.vertebrateAny animal that has a segmented vertebral column, as in fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.20) mobile belts________ are elongated regions near the boundaries of continents where tectonic activity results in mountain-buildingCaledonianThe presence of the ________ orogeny signifies the collision of land masses that resulted in the formation of Laurasia.PangeaThe six continental land masses—moved close together by active plate tectonics—collided to form ________ .sequence stratigraphyThe science of ________ allows geologists to study deposits of sedimentary rock of interest to the petroleum industry.the covering of the Transcontinental Arch islands by the Sauk Sea as a result of the Sauk transgressionMany geologic events and environmental conditions characterize the Sauk Sequence, including ________ .Tippecanoe SequenceThe deposition of basal sandstones, limestones, and dolostones occurred at the ________ .Barrier reefs exposed above sea level prevented new seawater from entering the basin, thereby reducing the amount of minerals evaporated from the seawater.About 1,500 meters of the evaporites halite and anhydrite were deposited in the Michigan Basin as the Tippecanoe Sea regressed. How may this have occurred?submersion of the source areas of basal sandstone during deposition of the Tippecanoe SequenceThe variant compositions of the basal sandstone in the Kaskaskia Sequence and the Silurian carbonate beds underlying the Tippecanoe-Kaskaskia unconformity are evidence of ________ .reef formation (Middle-Late Devonian), new source area formation (Middle-Late Devonian), appearance of shale (Upper Devonian - Lower Mississippian)The chronology of geologic events during the Devonian can be characterized as ________ .cyclothemsThe presence of ________ in Pennsylvanian rocks is evidence of transgressive and regressive cycles, representing alternating marine and nonmarine sediments.Pennsylvanian deposition of red arkosic sand, which originated from erosion of the Ancestral RockiesConstituent rocks of the Red Rock Amphitheatre in Colorado are derived from the ________ .Taconic OrogenyThe first collision at an oceanic-continental convergent plate boundary during the evolution of the Appalachian mobile belt resulted in the formation of the ________ .Ouachita and Marathon mountainsAs Gondwana and Laurasia collided, a large mountain range was created, most of which eroded during the Mesozoic Era. The remains of this mountain range today are known as the ________ .AvaloniaIn addition to the six major Paleozoic continents, tectonics involving the ________ microcontinent was also important in the formation of Pangaea.yields the most heat per unit volumeAnthracite is the preferred type of coal because it ________ .Absaroka SequenceWidespread Upper Mississippian to Lower Jurassic sedimentary rocks bounded above and below by unconformities; deposited during a transgressive?regressive cycle of the Absaroka Sea.Acadian orogenyancestral rockiesAntler orogenyLate Devonian to Mississippian deformation that affected the Cordilleran mobile belt from Nevada to Alberta, Canada.Appalachian mobile beltA mobile belt along the eastern margin of North America extending from Newfoundland to Georgia.
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