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Bio practice questions test 2
Terms in this set (39)
Why are viruses referred to as obligate parasites?
They cannot reproduce outside of a host cell
What is the name given to viruses that are single-stranded RNA that acts as a template for DNA synthesis?
What is a way to describe what we know about how the flu virus moves between species?
An animal such as a pig is infected with more than one virus, genetic recombination occurs, the virus mutates and can be transmitted to humans
What can be effective in preventing viral infection in humans?
What do cells and viruses have in common?
genetic material composed of nucleic acid
What percentage of human cancers are estimated to be at least partly of viral origin?
In glycolysis, a major portion of the energy remains in the final product, which is called
In eukaryotes, glycolysis takes place in the
cytoplasm of the cell
In addition to ATP, what are the end products of glycolysis?
NADH and pyruvate
The ATP made during glycolysis is generated by
Regardless of the electron or hydrogen acceptor used, one of the products of fermentation is always
The energy released in the mitochondrial electron transport chain is used to transport protons into the
inter-membrane space of mitochondria
The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is involved directly in which process or event?
accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain
Where does most of the mass of a tree come from?
carbon dioxide gas
In plant photosynthesis, the electron donor for the light dependent reaction is
What is the primary function of the Calvin cycle?
synthesize simple sugars from carbon dioxide
What type of cell communication is said to occur if a cell secretes a growth factor that acts on neighboring cells to cause them to proliferate?
What type of signaling occurs when insulin is secreted from the pancreas, travels through the bloodstream and then acts on muscle cells to increase glucose uptake?
Once bound to a hormone, this receptor becomes active and catalyzes a chemical reaction
tyrosine kinase receptor
The steroid testosterone is most likely to exert its effects by regulating
expression of genes and production of specific proteins
Cyclic AMP is made from
Decreased apoptosis might lead to
Accumulation of old cells, Cancer, Improper embryonic development
What is the sequence of cell-cycle phases is characteristic of eukaryotes?
G1 to S to G2 to M to C
The primary growth phase of a cell is
Chromosomes first become visible during which phase of mitosis
The chromosomes line up down the middle of the cell during
How do the daughter cells at the end of mitosis and cytokinesis compare with their parent cell when it was
in G1 of the cell cycle?
The daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and the same amount of DNA
If a cell completed mitosis but not cytokinesis, the result would be a cell with
What should happen if a cell with damaged DNA attempts to replicate its genome?
The cell cycle would arrest at the G1/S checkpoint
What protein is synthesized at specific times during the cell cycle that associates with a kinase to form a catalytically active complex?
Name a mutation that would NOT be expected to lead to cancer?
A gain of function mutation in p53
Gametes and germ cells
After meiosis I and before meiosis II, the chromosomal makeup of each daughter cell is
haploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids
Synapsis of homologous pairs and crossing over occur in
Sister chromatids are separated from each other
In both mitosis and meiosis II
Independent assortment of chromosomes is a result of
The random and independent way in which each pair of homologous chromosomes lines up at the metaphase plate during meiosis I
The F1 offspring of Mendel's classic pea cross always looked like one of the two parental varieties because
One phenotype was completely dominant over another
Two plants are crossed, resulting in offspring with a 3:1 ratio for a particular trait. This suggests
That the parents were both heterozygous
When crossing an organism that is homozygous recessive for a single trait with a heterozygote, what is the chance of producing an offspring with the homozygous recessive phenotype?
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