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71 terms

final exam I

STUDY
PLAY
osteocytes
bone cells; osteoblasts (creating); osteoclasts (destroying)
ossification
stages of bone formation
flat bones
thin, flat, curved (costals (ribs), cranial (skull), sternum (breastbone), scapula
articulation
Joints
long bones
long as they are wide
parts long bone
periosteum, diaphysis, epiphysis, epiphyseal disc, medullary cavity, articular cartilage
synovial joints
freely movable joints, 'joint capsule' surrounds the joint
two layers of synovial joints
outer: stratum fibrosum (surrounds ends of bone) inner: stratum synovium ( lots blood flow/no nerve)
calcium
makes bones stronger
vertebrae
26 bones; 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 1 sacral, 1 coccyx
hypomobility
less mobility than what you normally have
R.O.M.
range of motion
sprain
ligaments only
1st degree sprain
pain, swelling but abler to bear weight and move thru normal R.O.M
2nd degree sprain
larger tear, inability to bear weight w/o pain, compromised ROM
3rd degree sprain
serious injury, rupture of ligament w/ inability to bear weight, loss of normal ROM
skeletal muscle
type of tissue; straight; voluntary
cardiac muscle
boxy shaped; striated; involuntary
smooth muscle
irregular shaped;nonstriated;involuntary
fascia layers
connective tissue; endomysium (indiv. muscle fiber); perimysium (around a bundle or fasicle); epimysium (covers entire muscle)
lactic acid
sore muscles; built up because not enough O2
intercalcated disc
allows all of the areas of the heart muscle to contract rhythmically
fast twitch white
100 yard dash; contract fast and fatigues fast TYPE OF FIBER
fast twitch red
contracts fast; fatigues more slowly; 1 mile run TYPE OF FIBER
slow twitch red
contracts slowly and fatigues slowly; marathon TYPE OF FIBER
period of contraction
latent period;contraction period;relaxation period; refraction period
latent period
muscle at rest
contraction period
myofilaments slide past each other
relaxation period
original position
refractory period
replenishing supply of O2, glucose, & ATP
function of muscle tissue
motion, posture, heat production
sliding filament theory
1.nerve impulse 2.calcium release 3.sliding filament 4.relaxation
myoglobin
protein that transports oxygen
length of fiber
microscopic to over a foot
nervous tissue cell type
neuron (dendrite, cell body, axon, axon terminal); neurogalia
sympathetic
'fight or flight'; stimulated; blood goes to muscles
afferent
ascending-sensory
efferent
descending-motor
meningies
cushion/protective covering; 3 layers that surround and protect the brain.
dura mater
hard mother;outer layer
arachnoid mater
sub-arachnoid mater (weblike); middle layer
pia mater
soft mother; inner layer; next to brain
parasympathetic
relaxes; blood goes to digestive and reproductive; 'Feed and Breed'
PNS
cranial nerves (12); spinal nerves (31)
CNS
brain and spinal cord
cranial nerves
1-12 OOOTTAFVGVAH
Optic nerve
I. vision
Olfactory
II. smell
Oculomotor
III. move eye & pupil size
Troclear
IV. move eye
Trigeminal
V. chewing, sensation in scalp, teeth, face and eyes
Abducens nerve
VI. moves eyes
Facial nerve
VII. Expression, tears, and taste
Vestibulocochlear nerve
VIII. sense of hearing and balance
Glosssopharyngeal nerve
IX. taste, swallowing and blood pressure
Vagus
X. longest nerve; smooth muscle, digestion and BP
Accessory Nerve
XI. swallowing, moving shoulders and head
Hypoglossal Nerve
XII. speech
endocrine system
bodies communication and feedback system
pancreas
endocrine gland; secretes glucagon and insulin
pituitary
hGH; LH; FSH-endocrine gland
thyroid
secretes calcitonin
parathyroid
secretes parathyroid hormone; endocrine gland
adrenals
adrenoline
pineal
melotonin
peptide hormone
lock and Key; receptors attach
steroid hormone
diffuses through membrane-hormone glands are adrenal and gonad-all the rest are peptide
accessories of the eye
eyebrow, lids, lashes, lacrimal glands, canthus'
ear parts
outer- auricle, external auditory canal; middle- tympanic membrane, ossicles, eustatian tube; inner- oval window, cochlear, semicircular canal, and vestibule.
endochondral
ossification; when cartilage turns to bone
8 stages
cartilage model; bone collar; P.O.C; nutrient artery; epiphyseal disc; S.O.C.; medullary cavity; epiphyseal line