Insulin acts on liver, adipose tissue and muscle
1- insulin decreases the blood glucose concentration, the mechanism:
A- insulin increases glucose uptake into the target cells by facilitating the insertion
of glucose transporters into cell membranes, resulting in glucose to enter the cell
and a decrease in plasma glucose concentration.
B- insulin promotes glycogenesis (formation of glycogen) from glucose in the muscle
and liver, and it inhibits glycogenolysis.
C- insulin decreases gluconeogenesis, it increases the production of fructose
2,6-biphosphate, increasing phosphofructokinase activity.
2- insulin decreases blood fatty acid and ketoacid concentrations:
A- insulin stimulates fat deposition and inhibits lipolysis in adipose tissue,
B- insulin inhibits ketoacid formation in the liver, because decreased fatty acid
degradation provides less acetyl CoA substrate for ketoacid formation.
3- insulin decreases blood K+ concentration, increases K+ uptake into cells,
which decreases blood K+ concentration.