42 terms

Quiz 2

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Ecology
Study of how living things interact with each other and their environments
Biome
An area of ecosystems sharing similar climates and organisms
Organism
Living thing
Habitat
An environment that provides the things an organism needs to live, grow, and reproduce.
Biotic factor
Living part of organisms habitat
Abiotic factor
Nonliving part of an organism's habitat
Photosynthesis
Process organisms (like plants) use to make their own food from water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide
Species
Group of organisms physically similar that can mate with each other and produce offspring
Population
All the members of on species in a particular area
Community
All the different populations that live together in an area
Ecosystem
Community of organisms in an area interacting with non living surroundings
Niche
The role of an organism in its habitat, or how it makes a living
Adaptations
Behavior or physical characteristics that allows an organism to live successfully in its environment
Carrying Capacity
The largest population that an area can support
Natural Selection
The process by which characteristics that make an individual better suited to its environment become more common in a species.
Competition
The struggle between organisms to survive as they attempt to use the same limited resource
Predation
An interaction in which one organism kills another for food
Predator
The organism that does the killing in a predation interaction
Symbiosis
A close relationship between two species that benefits at least one of the species
Mutualism
A relationship between two species in which both species benefit
Commensalism
A relationship between two species in which one species benefits and the other is neither helped harmed
Parasitism
A relationship in which an organism lives on or in a host harms it
Parasite
The organism that benefit by living on or in a host in a parasitism interaction
Host
The organism that a parasite lives in or on in a parasitism interaction
Succession
The series of predictable changes that occur in a community over time
Primary succession
The series of changes that occur when no soil or organisms exist
Pioneer species
The first species to populate an area
Secondary succession
The series of changes that occur in an area where the ecosystem has been disturbed, but the soil and organisms still exist
Food chains
Show the way energy flows from one organism to another
Food web
Overlapping food chains
Herbivores
Plant eaters
Carnivores
Meat eaters
Omnivores
Eat both plants and animals
Producers
(Plants) produce their own food from the sun's energy
Consumers
(Animals) must eat to gain energy
Decomposer
(Fungi and bacteria) break down chemicals from dead organisms and returns important materials to the soil
Scavenger
A carnivore that feeds on the bodies of dead organisms
Energy Pyramid
A diagram that shows the amount of energy that moves from one trophic level (feeding level) to another in a food web
Trophic Level
An organism's position in a food web or food chain
Autotroph
An organism that makes its own food
Heterotroph
An organism that obtains energy by eating
Global Warming
The theory that increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will raise Earth's average temperature
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