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Arts and Humanities
Phonology Exam 3
Terms in this set (65)
PURPOSES OF TREATMENT: Stage 3 (24 months to 5 years)
Facilitate acquisition of major speech elements
PURPOSES OF TREATMENT: Stage 4 (5 years through adolescence)
Facilitate development of literacy and eliminate errors affecting late-acquired speech
LONG-TERM GOALS: Both Stage 3 and Stage 4
Articulation and phonological development to be age appropriate. Success measured by age norms and measures of severity and/or intelligibility
LONG-TERM GOALS: Stage 4
Eliminate errors affecting happiness or social and educational development. Success measured by client and /or family interview
SHORT-TERM GOALS: Stage 3
Reduce or eliminate errors affecting classes of speech elements. Facilitate speech in phrases and sentences. Encourage use of speech in settings outside the home.
SHORT-TERM GOALS: Stage 4
Facilitate mastery of late-acquired consonants and consonant clusters. Teach pronunciation of literary and scientiﬁc vocabulary. Increase phonological awareness. Encourage use of speech in social and educational settings.
TREATMENT TARGET DECISIONS: How do we go about deciding what/how to treat?
Selecting treatment targets. Deciding between least and most knowledge methods. Determining number of treatment targets. Changing treatment targets. Selecting linguistic levels and phonetic environments.
We say a sound has been mastered when accuracy reaches ___%
We say a sound has been acquired when accuracy reaches ___%
We say a sound is emerging when accuracy reaches ___%
We say a sound is rare when accuracy reaches ___%
We say a sound is absent when accuracy reaches ___%
A kid produces a sound correct 75% of the time. We would say the sound is __________.
A kid produces a sound correct 74% of the time. We would say the sound is __________.
A kid produces a sound correct 49% of the time. We would say the sound is __________.
A kid produces a sound correct 24% of the time. We would say the sound is __________.
A kid produces a sound correct 0% of the time. We would say the sound is __________.
When selecting treatment targets we have to keep in mind:
Stimulability. Emerging sound. Key word. Phonetic placement and shaping
Most knowledge method
Traditional criterion. Treatment targets differ minimally from the sounds
that the client already produces
Least knowledge method
Treatment targets differ from the client's existing abilities by multiple features
What is a Vertically structured treatment program?
Phonetic (traditional-motor) approaches. Training deep: one or two treatment goals or targets
What is a Horizontally structured treatment program?
Multiple-sound approach. Training broad / wide: three or more treatment targets
What is a Cyclically structured treatment program?
Combination of vertical and horizontal approaches
Three approaches to CHANGING TREATMENT TARGETS?
Flexibility, Time, Percentage
What is the flexibility changing treatment target criterion?
For young children. Be flexible until client cooperates.
What is the time changing treatment target criterion?
Spend an x amount of time working on a given phoneme.
What is the percentage changing treatment target criterion?
Work on given phoneme until client reaches X% accuracy.
In what order do we treat sounds?
Isolated sounds > Nonsense syllables > Words > Phrases > Sentences > Spontaneous speech
If you had to treat a consonant, in what environment would you present it to the child?
If you had to treat a voiced consonant, in what environment would you present it to the child?
Either between vowels or in the beginning of words and syllables
If you had to treat a voiceless consonant, in what environment would you present it to the child?
At the end of syllables and words
If you had to treat a velar stop, in what environment would you present it to the child?
At the end of words or at the beginning of words before a back vowel
If you had to treat a alveolar stop, in what environment would you present it to the child?
At the beginning of words before front vowels
If you had to treat a voiced fricative, in what environment would you present it to the child?
ADMINISTRATIVE DECISIONS you have to take?
Types of sessions, Frequency of sessions, Length of sessions, Length of activities in sessions, Format of activities
How do you ASSESS TREATMENT PROGRESS?
Pretests and posttests (word probes, judgement scales of severity and intelligibility) Multiple baseline design
When do we DISMISS FROM INSTRUCTION?
80 - 90% accuracy in structured contexts. 50% in spontaneous natural contexts
What is Auditory stimulation/imitation (sound elicitation)?
You say sound, child imitates. Isolated or if voiceless with vowel.
What is use of context (sound elicitation)?
Present sounds in particular words, contexts (initial, medial, final)
What is Phonetic placement (sound elicitation)?
Explain position of articulators so that child can copy it. Use mirror
What is Moto-kinesthetic method (sound elicitation)?
Physically move articulators so that child can feel what they should be doing (Popsicle stick)
What is Sound approximation/modiﬁcation (sound elicitation)?
Go from sound they can produce to sound they can't produce. From /s/ to /0/.
What is metaphor (sound elicitation)?
Use metaphor to explain sound (snake).
Why is /r/ hard to teach?
No visual feedback (articulators are far back), no sensory feedback, several kinds of /r/, complex articulation
MINIMAL PAIR INTERVENTION: Population
Mild to mild-to-moderate phonological disorders and a few consistent patterns of phonological error / collapse of contrast
MINIMAL PAIR INTERVENTION: Picking targets
Stimulable sounds, Begin in initial word position with earlier acquired sounds, word level, 3 to 5 word pairs that are produced as homophones
MINIMAL PAIR INTERVENTION: Procedures
Test for concepts, Test for discrimination, Production practice,
MULTIPLE OPPOSITIONS APPROACH: Population
Moderate to severe phonological disorders with extensive phoneme collapses. ≥ 6 absent sounds across 3 manner classes. Impaired speech intelligibility
MULTIPLE OPPOSITIONS APPROACH: Picking targets
Minimal pair sets including up to four target sounds (absent sounds) + substituted sound. Targeted sounds are maximally different from one
another and from the error substitute.
COMPLEXITY APPROACH: Procedures
Selecting treatment targets, Phonetic production, Spontaneous production
COMPLEXITY APPROACH: Population
Moderate to severe phonological disorders. ≥ 6 sounds absent across three manner classes
COMPLEXITY APPROACH: Goal
To induce the greatest system-wide generalization
Liquids imply _____
_____ imply nasals
Affricates imply _____
______ imply fricatives
Fricatives imply ______
______ imply stops
CYCLES APPROACH: Population
Severely unintelligible children (< 20%) who display several phonological processes
CYCLES APPROACH: Procedures
Target patterns facilitated using stimulation, production training, and minimal pairs. One pattern targeted per session.
CYCLES APPROACH: Picking targets
Early developing phonological patterns, posterior / anterior contrasts, /s/ clusters, liquids
What is phonological awareness?
The ability to pay attention to the sound structure of
Why is phonological awareness important?
Helps with literacy development
Phono Awareness: Sample tasks
Initial phoneme isolation, phoneme identiﬁcation from a given target across words, phoneme isolation and identiﬁcation across words, odd one-out tasks
METAPHON THREAPY: Population
Best for preschool children with very restricted phonetic inventories, idiosyncratic phonological processes, and at least 2 - 3 prominent phonological processes
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