Environmental Science AP Chapter 6
Terms in this set (46)
Composed of all individuals that belong to the same species, in a given area at a certain time.
All the populations of organisms within one area
Study of factors that cause populations to increase or decrease
(N) Total # of individuals within a defined area at a given time
# of individuals per unit area at a given time
How individuals are distributed with respect to one another
Ratio of males to females
Description of how many individuals fit into particular age categories.
Density Dependent Factors
Influence an individuals probability of survival and reproduction that depends on the size of the population.
Resource that a population can't live without and which occurs in quantities lower than the population would require to increase in size
(K) Limit to how many individuals the food can sustain.
Density Independent Factors
Have the same effect on an individuals probability of survival and amount of reproduction at any population size.
# of offspring an individual can produce in a given time period - the deaths of the individual or its offspring in the same time period
Intrinsic Growth Rate
Under ideal conditions, the maximum ability for growth in a population.
Exponential Growth Model
N1 = N0e to the n
J-Shaped Curve (Population)
Logistic Growth Model
Describes a population whose growth is initially exponential, but slows as the population approaches carrying capacity
S-Shaped Curve (Population)
Population becoming larger than spring carrying capacity and some will die off
Population crash when it gets too high
Carrying capacity is used as K, so these are those
Intrinsic growth rate is an R
(Patterns of survival over a lifespan)
Strips of natural habitats that provide connectedness among populations.
Group of spatially distinct populations that are connected by occasional movements of individuals between them
Study of the interactions which determine the survival of a species in a habitat
Struggle of individuals to obtain a limiting resource
Competitive Exclusion Principle
2 Species competing for the same limiting resource cannot exist
2 Species divide a resource based on differences in the species behavior or morphology
Use of one species as a resource for another species
Kill their prey and eat it
Live on or in what they eat
Parasites that disease their host
Organisms that lay eggs inside other organisms
Benefits 2 interacting species to increase both chances of survival/reproduction
One species benefits but the other is neutral
2 species live in close relations to each other
Species that plays a role in its community that is far more important than others
Predator Mediated Competition
Predators keep populations in check
Keystone species may create or maintain habitats for other species.
A type of change that occurs on every community, predictable replacement of 1 group of species by another
Occurs on surfaces that are initially devoid of soil, (Parking lot, glacial retreat rock, cool lava)
Occurs in areas that have been disturbed, but not lost their soil.
Ability of a species to colonize new areas rapidly and grow well in full sunshine.
Theory of Island Biogeopraphy
Demonstrates the dual importance of habitat size and distance in determining species richness.