45 terms

Leisure, tourism and sport (2019)

Sources: IB Geography Guide, Geography Course Companion and IB Prepared. Pictures: Google, Robert Aun
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Carrying capacity
The maximum number of visitors/participants that a site/event can satisfy at one time (IB).
Environmental carrying capacity
The maximum number of visitors/participants that a site/event can satisfy at one time before the local environment becomes damaged (IB).
Perceptual carrying capacity
The maximum number of visitors/participants before a specific group of visitors considers the level of impact, such as crowding or noise, to be excessive. For example, young mountain bikers may be more crowd-tolerant than elderly walkers (IB).
Leisure
Any freely chosen activity or experience that takes place in non-work time (IB).
Primary tourist/recreational resources
The pre-existing attractions for tourism or recreation (that is, those not built specifically for the purpose), including climate, scenery, wildlife, indigenous people, cultural and heritage sites (IB).
Secondary tourist/recreational resources
Attractions for tourism or recreation that are built specifically for the purpose, which include accommodation, catering, entertainment and shopping (IB).
Recreation
A leisure-time activity undertaken voluntarily and for enjoyment. It includes individual pursuits, organized outings and events, and non-paid (non-professional) sports (IB).
Resort
A settlement where the primary function is tourism. This includes a hotel complex (IB).
Sports
Physical activities that involve using skills in events and competitions at the local, regional, national and international scales. Sport can be either amateur or professional.
Tourism
Travel away from home for at least one night for the purpose of leisure. Note that this definition excludes day-trippers.
Ecotourism
Tourism focusing on the natural environment and local communities (IB).
Heritage tourism
Tourism based on a historic legacy (landscape feature, historic building or event) as its major attraction.
Sustainable tourism
Tourism that conserves primary tourist resources and supports the livelihoods and culture of local people.
Domestic tourism
Tourism at home involving residents of the country.
International tourist arrivals (inbound tourists)
Tourists arriving from another country.
Participation rate
The proportion of a population that takes part in a specific sporting activity.
Leakage
Economic loss of tourist money, by tourists using companies not owned by the host country, and spending money outside the host country (e.g. on a cruise ship).
Multiplier effect
When an initial amount of spending (usually by the government) leads to increased spending by tourists and so results in an increase in national income greater than the initial amount of spending.
Physical carrying capacity
The measure of absolute space, for example the number of spaces within a car park.
Ecological carrying capacity
The level of use that an environment can sustain before environmental damage occurs (same as environmental carrying capacity).
Doxey's Irridex
Marbella, Costa del Sol, Spain.
Case study: Tourism management in urban areas. "For one named city or large town: describe the distribution and location of primary and secondary tourist resources discuss the strategies designed to manage tourist demands, maximize capacity and minimize conflicts between local residents and visitors, and avoid environmental damage.
The Lake District, UK
Case study: Tourism management in rural areas: "Examine the concept of carrying capacities in a rural tourist area. Discuss strategies designed to maximize capacity and minimize conflicts between local residents and visitors, and avoid environmental damage.
Kenya
Case study of a national tourist industry: "Examine the economic, social and environmental impacts of tourism."
Kenya
Case study: Tourism as a development strategy: ""Examine the importance of tourism as a development strategy for low‑income countries."
Basecamp Explorer, Masai Mara, Kenya.
Case study of ecotourism: "Evaluate the strategies designed to manage and sustain the tourist industry."
2012 London Olympic Games
Case study of urban regeneration: "Discuss the role of sport and recreation in regeneration strategies of urban areas."
2008 Beijing Olympic Games
Case study of a contemporary international sports event: "Analyse the geographic factors that influenced the choice of venue(s)."
The English/Welsh Football League
Case study of a national sports league: "Explain the hierarchy of a league and the location of the teams. Examine the relationship between team location and the residence of its supporters."
Norway and Denmark
The OECD countries with the most leisure time (5-6 hours a day).
France and Japan
The OECD countries with the least leisure time (3-4 hours a day).
They still spend more time than men on unpaid activities at home.
The reason why women have less leisure time.
Group tours, packaged tours, individual travel, backpacking.
Tourism classified according to the way in which it is organised.
Visiting relatives, reunions, recreation, cultural enrichment, adventure, religious pilgrimages and sightseeing.
Tourism classified according to the purpose of the travel.
Soccer
Most popular sport in the world (followed by basketball and cricket)
Level of income, car ownership, working hours, disposable income, social-psychological factors and exogenous (or external) considerations.
Economic level and leisure factors that have an impact on the type of leisure activities that a person and their family undertakes.
Sweden and Mexico
The relationship between economic development and participation in leisure can be illustrated by examining two countries at contrasting levels of development.
Affluence of individual, gender, age, stages in life, retirement, place of residence
Factors affecting participation in sport and tourism
Affluence, stage of life cycle (and age), gender, place of residence and visa.
Factors that affect pattern of tourism
Appeal, well-known, accessible, affordable, safe.
Factors needed for a destination to become a tourist hotspot.
Hierarchy
A system or organisation in which people or groups are ranked one above the other according to status or authority.
Low-order services
Post offices, doctors and newsagents.
High-order services
Leisure centres, chain stores and hospitals.
Sphere of influence
The area from which people are attracted to facilities (services). London has a global one.
Leisure hierarchy
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