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Arts and Humanities
Topic 2: THE MAKING AND MEANING OF INFORMATION
What is a Communication System?
Terms in this set (24)
What is data transformation?
processing the substance of data in a useful way
What is Distillation?
turning large amounts of data into smaller elements of information.
What is pattern recognition?
implies the application of a structure to 'structureless' data.
What is the difference between structured and unstructured information?
-Unstructured information is found as web pages, news content (including RSS feeds), social network pages, e‐mail, text files, PDF files, and word processing files.
-Structured information is found in databases, business applications, customer relationship management (CRM) applications, and information portals.
What is communication?
The sharing of information between two or more
individuals and groups to reach a common understanding.
What are the elements of process modelling?
-Feedback - how successfully a message is transferred. Used to determined whether understanding has been achieved.
-Noise or interference: Barriers that distort clarity of message.
How can this be applied to interpersonal communication?
1) Inclusion of a Feedback loop
2) uniquely human sources of "noise".
what is a communication system?
Look at annotated diagram
What are the elements of the communication process?
Feedback - how successfully a message is
transferred. Used to determined whether understanding has been achieved.
Noise or interference: Barriers that distort clarity of the message.
What are the steps in the communication process?
1) Sender (who has the idea and perception) sends an encoded message through the channel, facing medium noise.
2) Receiver (who has to understand and gain a perception), decodes message and provides feedback to sender.
What are the communication channels?
1) Verbal communication (in the form of spoken words or written words):
• Language, speaking and writing skills
2) Graphic communication (with shapes, diagrams and lines)
3) Nonverbal communication (by any means other than words or graphics):
• Body language
How do messages differ?
1) Content (complexity and personal or emotional nature).
2) Situational factors (time and location).
3) Symbolic needs (need to convey urgency or authority).
What is Face-to-Face Communication?
-one end of the continuum with written communication at the other end.
-Provides constant (fast) feedback on how well the receiver is hearing and understanding the message.
-Provides visible body language, facial expression or verbal cues, to indicate confusion or disinterest.
-Allows sender to modify, repeat or clarify the message.
What are the shortcomings of written media?
-Offers no opportunities for feedback (at least in the short.
-Range of message is hence more limited that face‐to‐face.
-Suited for messages with low ambiguity & low emotional content.
What are the positives of personally addressed written communication?
-has a lower richness than verbal forms, but still directed at a given person.
-helps ensure the receiver actually reads
-A good media for complex messages requesting follow‐up actions by the receiver.
How is impersonal written communication, useful?
for messages to many receivers where little or no feedback is expected.
What types of noises are there in encoding?
-translating internal thought patterns into a language or code the intended receiver of the message will likely understand and/or pay attention to.
-Choice of words, gestures, or other symbols for
encoding depends on the nature of the message.
-Technical or non‐technical
-Emotional or factual
-Visual or auditory
-Cultural diversity can create encoding challenges
What types of noise are there in decoding?
-a willingness to receive the message.
-knowledge of the language and terminology used in the message.
-an understanding of the sender's purpose and
1. A person's mood
2. Past experiences dealing with a similar situation
what are barriers to successful communication?
-FilteringL sender purposely manipulating information so that it
is received more favourably. The more levels in an
organisation, the more opportunities for it to occur.
-Selective Perception: Receivers selectively see and hear based.
on their needs, motivation, experience, background etc.
Interpret what we see and call it reality!
-Information Overload: when information we work with exceeds our capacity to manage effectively.
-Emotions: How receiver feels when they are in receipt of information impacts their interpretation.
-Language: including variables such as age, education, cultural differences and jargon.
-Communication Apprehension‐ 5 - 20 % suffer from communication anxiety:
•Undue anxiety in oral communication, written communication or both.
•Those who are oral apprehensive, avoid talking to people; prefer to use e‐ mails and faxes, when a phone would have been more appropriate.
What is he information view of communication?
This traditional view which sees the organization as a container and that communication is shaped by the structure of the organisation.
-Very useful way of communicating for day to day operations:the right information to the right people at the right time!
• BUT in this view, the organization is seen as something that
exists separately from communication. This means
communication breakdowns are seen as technical
(technology?) problems, unrelated to the organisation itself.
Why is it harder now, to communicate well than before?
-It is more than just transmitting information.
-People interpret the same message differently, some can be deceptive and their motives difficult to decipher.
-It is more about what one does not say rather than what they do say or how they say it.
-People often communicate for many reasons than to just transmit information.
What is the constitutive view of communication?
Sees communication as a complex process of continually creating and negotiating the meanings and interpretations that shape our lives.
• Communication constitutes, or makes up our social world.
• So what is an organisation in this view? Organisations are not
buildings or desks, they are created by people (with different
values, motivations, abilities, resources, etc.
• So organizations are visible manifestations of human activity,
and of communication.
What is the problem with the constitutive view?
-Organisations do have physical things that make up the organisation!
-These material things have no meaning apart from human interaction, nor any impact apart from our choices through communication.
-So making sense of how the organisation operates is only possible through communication.
-This view is important; otherwise we miss important opportunities for deeper insight and understanding.
Why are two views of communication required?
When organisations become complex - i.e undergoing major change, trying to persuade sceptical leaders of your idea, to mediate a
conflict. In these cases it is not just about the information to exchange, but the social realities you create.
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