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the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumption, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidences, and assesses conclusions
an explanations using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations.
a statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables. (ex: memory may be defined as "number of words correctly recalled from a list").
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation.
the perception of a relationship where none exists; the basis for many superstitions
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one of more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experiment controls other relevant factors.
an experimental procedure in which both the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or placebo.
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance of condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
tendency of some people to work harder and perform better when they are participants in an experiment. Individuals may change their behavior due to the attention they are receiving from researchers rather than because of any manipulation of independent variables.
A subject or group of subjects in an experiment that is exposed to the factor or condition being tested.
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment., In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
the experimental factor - in psychology, the behavior or mental process - that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
Statistics used to describe only the observed group or sample from which they were derived; summary statistics such as percent, averages, and measures of variability that are computed on a particular group of individuals.
numerical methods used to determine whether research data support a hypothesis or whether results were due to chance (e.g. p-value)
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.
APA Ethical Guidelines
these rules specify that researchers avoid procedures that might cause serious physical or mental harm to human subjects, protect confidentiality of the data, respect a subject's right to refuse at any time during the study; includes Informed Consent, Freedom to Withdraw, Debriefing, No Harm, and Confidentiality
the tendency to be more confident than correct—to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments.
a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
when a specific word used in a question affects how respondents answer the question or the order of the questions
the method used to observe and record behavior without manipulation (survey, case study, naturalistic observation)
The probability level which forms basis for deciding if results are statistically significant (not due to chance).
items (often people) selected at random from a population and used to test hypotheses about the population
in an experiment, a variable, other than the independent variable, that could influence the dependent variable
giving participants in a research study a complete explanation of the study after the study is completed; required by APA ethics guidelines
agreement to participate in psychology research, after being informed of the dangers and benefits of the research
the extent to which a study's findings can be reasonably assumed to apply to the study population (not just the sample); enhanced by having larger, random samples and large differences between (experimental and control) groups
social desirability bias
A tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself; a potential challenge in surveys involving self-report
A problem that occurs when a sample is not representative of the population from which it is drawn.
A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes.
institutional review board (IRB)
A committee organized by a university or other research institution that approves, monitors, and reviews all research that involves human subjects. Its main purpose is to ensure compliance with ethics standards.
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