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Chapter 3 Bio
Terms in this set (32)
Cells typically make all of their macromolecules from a set of 40-50 common monomers and a few other rare ingredients via dehydration (or condensation) reactions. Which of the following statements is true about dehydration reactions?
Electrons are shared between atoms of the joined monomers
What process is used to produce polymers?
Energy is released as a result of which of the following chemical reactions?
What is structurally different about cellulose when compared to starch?
β-1,4 glycosidic linkages are used
Polysaccharide that makes up the cell wall of plants; provides structural support to the cell
Type of carbohydrate that forms the outer skeleton of all arthropods that include crustaceans and insects; it also forms the cell walls of fungi
Which fat serves as an animal's major form of energy storage?
Besides its use in hormone production, for what does the body use cholesterol?
Production of bile salts
Fat formed artificially by hydrogenating oils, leading to a different arrangement of double bond(s) than those found in naturally occurring lipids
Where is the linkage made that combines two amino acids?
Between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of the other
A type of protein that carried chemical messages through the body is a(n) ____.
Biological macromolecule that carries the genetic blueprint of a cell and carries instructions for the functioning of the cell
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
RNA that carries activated amino acids to the site of protein synthesis on the ribosome
The building blocks of nucleic acids are____.
Closed rings of carbon atoms with resonance are called __________ .
Galactose is classified as a type of what?
Which of the following bodily process would most likely be hindered by a lack of water in the body?
Which of these describe some of the similarities and differences between cellulose and starch?
Starch is less branched than glycogen and is found in plants.
Animals cannot digest cellulose due to the type of bonding between the glucose monomers. The glucose monomers are there for an energy source but are unattainable. Yet ruminants such as cows and sheep, and termites eat cellulose in the form of grasses and wood. How do they do it?
Specialized bacteria and protists are found in the digestive tracts of these animals making cellulase that result in cellulose breakdown.
What is a difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?
Saturated fats are solid at room temperature and unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature
What are the four classes of lipids and what is an example of each?
1. Lipids like margarine
2. Wax like the coating on feathers
3. Phospholipids like cell membrane constituents
3. Steroid like cholesterol
The fatty acids of triglycerides are classified as saturated, unsaturated, or trans fats. What is it about the structure of these compounds that gives them their physical characteristics?
Unsaturated fats and trans fats have some double bonded carbon atoms, while saturated fats do not.
How do phospholipids contribute to cell membrane structure?
Phospholipids orient their heads towards the polar molecules and tails in the interior of the membrane, thus forming a bilayer.
How do phospholipids contribute flexibility to cell membrane structure?
The phospholipids containing unsaturated fatty acids cannot be tightly packed which provides membrane flexibility.
Which categories of amino acid would you expect to find on the surface of a soluble protein, and which would you expect to find in the interior?
Polar and charged amino acids will be found on the surface. Non-polar amino acids will be found in the interior.
Why is the process of protein synthesis critical to life?
Protein is required for tissue formation and constitutes hormones and enzymes.
Vegans are people who do not consume any animal products in their diet. Why do vegans need to pay special attention to the protein they eat?
It is more difficult to obtain all essential amino acids from single plant sources.
Which molecule carries information in a form that is inherited from one generation to another?
Hereditary information is stored in DNA.
What are some reasons that DNA is double-stranded and RNA is single-stranded in plants and animals?
DNA encodes multiple genes and is stable. RNA codes for particular genes, is always functional, and can exit the nucleus.
One of the risks for people with diabetes is diabetic ketoacidosis, a build-up of acid in the bloodstream. Explain why this is dangerous to humans.
Diabetic ketoacidosis decreases normal pH (7.35-7.45) to a lower value.
What role do electrons play in dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis?
H+and OH− ions share electrons with the respective monomers in hydrolysis.
What causes the changes in protein structure through the three or four levels of structure?
The primary structure attains a curved shape and covalent bonds, which further acquire hydrogen bonds at specific pH.
What happens if you have vitamin B12 deficiency?
What are the two oxygen binding proteins?
What is the first step of activation?
What is the alpha-keto acid of alanine?
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