APWH 37: The End of Empire

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Green Revolution
The introduction of pesticides, fertilizers, and high-yield grains and better management during the mid-1900s which greatly increased agricultural productivity.
World Cup
A soccer tournament held every four years in which nations compete to determine the world champion. An example of a sporting event that reflects national and social aspirations.
Olympics (modern)
The modern revival of ancient Greek games held once every four years in a selected country. An example of a sporting event that reflects national and social aspirations.
Bollywood
The name for the Indian movie industry. Famous for its efficiency and family-friendly fare with lots of music and dance numbers. Demonstrates the local version of the international movie industry.
Reggae
A style of music that developed in Jamaica in the 1960s and is rooted in African, Caribbean, and American music, often dealing with social problems and religion.
Juan Perón
Populist leader of Argentina (1946-1955, 1973-1974). Championed the rights of labor with the aid of his wife Evita.
Pan-Arabism
A nationalist movement built on the shared heritage of Arabs who lived in the lands from the Arabian peninsula from North Africa.
Gamel Abdel Nasser
Nationalist leader of Egypt who played the US and the USSR against each other. Also nationalized the Suez Canal.
Negritude
Literary movement in Africa that celebrated African culture and heritage. It is associated with origins of African nationalist movements.
African National Congress
An organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa. It eventually brought equality, largely through the efforts of Nelson Mandela.
Apartheid
In South Africa, a social policy or racial segregation involving political and economic and legal discrimination against non-whites.
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese communist leader who fought the French until 1954 and South Vietnam (and the U.S.).
self-immolation
To deliberately sacrifice oneself by fire. Became a regular occurrence for Buddhist monks in the years leading up to the Vietnam War.
Cultural Revolution
Campaign in China ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of his opponents, eliminate the last vestiges of traditional Chinese culture, and instill revolutionary values in the younger generation.
Great Leap Forward
Economic and social plan used in China from 1958 to 1961 which aimed to use China's vast population to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a modern industrial society. Led to massive famine and the deaths of approximately 20 million people.
Deng Xiaoping
Leader of communist China after Mao Zedong. Increased economic freedom while maintaining political totalitarianism.
Tienanmen Square
Location where Deng Xiaoping's government massacred pro-democracy protesters in China.
Irish Republican Army
An unofficial nationalist military force that used terrorism and guerrilla warfare in an attempt to gain independence for Ireland from Great Britain.