History 1302 Exam 3
Terms in this set (30)
(HT) 1946-1988, Churchill said it was a "iron curtain" between eastern and western Europe, A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years, US against Communism (containment)
Sphere of Influence
A foreign region in which a nation has control over trade and other economic activities.
Balance of Power
The policy in international relations by which, beginning in the eighteenth century, the major European states acted together to prevent any one of them from becoming too powerful. A distribution and opposition of forces among nations such that no single nation is strong enough to assert its will or dominate all the others.
1945. The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. Truman, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.
1945. Stalin, Truman, and Churchill came together to decide how Germany would be punished. Their goals were to establish order, settle peace treaty issues, and deal with the effects of WWII. Truman found out about atomic bomb
1945. Truman dropped "Fat Boy" on Nagasaki. Japan surrendered after receiving protection for the Emperor. Emperor Hirohito surrendered to Macarthur and led to end of Pacific Theatre. Bombing sent a message to Stalin: "Don't mess with America b/c might contain more bombs."
1940s. A U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances
1946 Started by Truman and was an agency that sends needed food-packets overseas. Helped countless people survive the worst of the misery left in the war.
1940s. He was an American diplomat and ambassador best known as "the father of containment", notified Truman of Soviet ambitions to expand empire and overthrow other political forces; believed that U.S. policy should be to "contain" the Soviet Union
Marshall Plan/European Recovery Plan
1947. Goal was to loan money to countries in Europe to rebuild their country. Effects would be that the countries would be our allies, we won't have a repeat of Germany after World War I/Hitler. Secret Goal was to improve U.S. Economy and pay down debt by having the countries pay interest on the money and they will use US companies to do the rebuilding.
1919. Most intense outbreak of national alarm, began in 1919. Success of communists in Russia, American radicals embracing communism followed by a series of mail bombings frightened Americans. Attorney General A. MItchell Palmer led effort to deport aliens without due process, with widespread support. Did not last long as some Americans came to their senses. Sacco/Vanzetti trial demonstrated anti-foreign feeling in 20's. Accused of armed robbery & murder, had alibis. "Those anarchists bastards". Sentenced to death and executed.
1950s; Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American government, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential; "McCarthyism" was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists
Julius & Ethel Rosenberg
1950. Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.
House UnAmerican Activities Committee
1970s. An investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. In 1969, the House changed the committee's name to "House Committee on Internal Security." When the House abolished the committee in 1975, its functions were transferred to the House Judiciary Committee. An investigative committee that dealt with "communists or people with ties to communism" in America.
1946. A cohort of individuals born in the United States between 1946 and 1964, which was just after World War II in a time of relative peace and prosperity. These conditions allowed for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility.
Serviceman's Readjustment Act/GI Bill
1944. Contained the 52-20 clause which gave veterans $20 a week for every 52 weeks of service. Paid for education of veterans at any college. Created cheaper housing loans specifically for veterans to own their own home which created the modern suburb.
In 1947, William Levitt used mass production techniques to build inexpensive homes in surburban New York to help relieve the postwar housing shortage. Levittown became a symbol of the movement to the suburbs in the years after WWII.
1945. The residential districts or suburbs outside the boundaries of a city or town. Dramatically increased in size after WW2. Middle Class
1920s. The automobile industry changed the face of America, the popularity of the automobiles jumped from 26 million in 1945 to 60 million in 1960 (80% of homes had at least 1 car by 1960). Gave young freedom from parents. Gave rise to new industries. Well paying car industry jobs were part of the growing middle class. Families started having 2 cars
National Highway System
1950s. A system of limited access roadways that connects all major cities in the US. The system was designed to give troops faster routes to get to destinations across the US in the event of an attack on the US. The system's main purpose now is travel by civilians; During EISENHOWER'S term
Why Johnny Can't Read
1955. Rudolph Flesch. This was a best-selling book that talked about how parents should make kids read at home and that television is bad. Traditional.
1957. The soviet union surprised the world by launching sputnik, the first artificial satellite to orbit the earth. The resulting outcry in the united states, especially fears that the soviets were ahead in both space exploration and military missiles, forced the Eisenhower administration to increase defense spending and accelerate America's space program.
"Duck and cover"
During the war, schoolchildren practiced crawling under their desks and putting their hands over their heads to protect themselves from an atomic bomb attack.
National Defense Education Act (NDEA)
1958. Gave 887 million in loans to needy college students and grants for the improvement of teaching the sciences and languages, allocated grants for state universities to upgrade their science facilities, created $300 million in low-interest loans for college students, and provided fellowship support for graduate students planning to go into college and university teaching
Executive Order 9981
1948. Truman establishes equality of treatment and opportunity in the Armed Services for people of all race, religions, or national origins
Brown vs. Board of Education
1954. Decision saying, segregation in SCHOOLS is a violation of the 14th amendment, stated that it was unconstitutional to maintain separate black and white schools, overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). Ruled that segregated schools are not acceptable because of the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Little Rock Nine
1957. The school board in Little rock, Arkansas, won a court order to admit nine African American students to Central High a school with 2,000 white students. The governor ordered troops from Arkansas National Guard to prevent the nine from entering the school. The next day as the National Guard troops surrounded the school, an angry white mob joined the troops to protest the integration plan and to intimidate the AA students trying to register. The mob violence pushed Eisenhower's patience to the breaking point. He immediately ordered the US Army to send troops to Little Rock to protect and escort them for the full school year.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
1955. In Montgomery, Alabama, Rosa Parks refused to give up her bus seat for a White man as required by city ordinance. Led by Martin Luther King, It started the Civil Rights Movement and an almost nation-wide bus boycott lasting 11 months. Ruled that segregation of public transportation was unconstitutional
Martin Luther King
one of the main leaders of the American civil rights movement, a political activist, a Baptist minister, and was one of America's greatest orators. In 1964, King became the youngest man to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (for his work as a peacemaker, promoting nonviolence and equal treatment for different races). On April 4, 1968, King was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
Chief Justice Earl Warren
The man who said "separate is inequal," he also gave the majority vote. Accepted cases involving controversial issues, particularly civil rights and the rights of the accused. His decisions focused on the protection of the constitutional rights of citizens accused of a crime. Symbolized judicial activism