What can a deficiency of growth hormone during bone formation cause?
decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage
During infancy and childhood, the most important stimulus of the epiphyseal plate activity
Hematopoeisis refers to
the formation of blood cells within the red marrow cavities of certain bones
Which of the following hormones is currently thought to decrease plasma calcium levels in pregnant women and children?
Which of the following would NOT be a way that parathyroid hormone (PTH) could alter plasma calcium levels?
increase osteroblasts on bone
In newborn infants, the medullary cavity and all areas of spongy bone contain yellow bone marrow.
Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream?
The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?
For intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the following is necessary?
an ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue
The resilience of bone is primarily due to which of the following?
sacrificial bonds in or between collagen molecules
The hormone that is primarily involved in the control of bone remodeling is the parathyroid hormone.
Which of the following statements best describes interstitial growth?
Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within.
Cartilage grows in two ways, appositional and interstitial. What is appositional growth?
the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage
What is the major function of the axial skeleton?
provide central support for the body and protect internal organs
Which structure allows the diaphysis of the bone to increase in length until early childhood, as well as shaping the articular surfaces?
The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site of ________.
blood vessels and nerve fibers
How can a tooth be moved in a bony socket during orthodontic treatment?
By applying slight pressure to a tooth, the bone on the forward side will reabsorb, while the bone on the reverse side will be reformed.
Lengthwise, long bone growth during infancy and youth is exclusively through ________.
interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates
Which of the following is CORRECTLY matched?
compound fracture: the fractured bone ends penetrate the skin
Mrs. Mulligan goes to her dentist and, after having a couple of cavities filled, her dentist strongly suggests that she reduce her intake of sodas and increase her intake of calcium phosphates in the foods she eats. Why?
Sodas are strong acids that can dissolve the calcium phosphate in bone and teeth.
Which hormone is produced in bone and regulates bone formation, but also protects against diabetes mellitus?
Which type of cartilage covers and protects the ends of bones at freely moveable joints?
Which of the following refers to a bone disorder found most often in the aged and resulting in the bones becoming porous and light?
The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called ________.
perforating (Sharpey's) fibers
Which of the following is the single most important stimulus for epiphyseal plate activity during infancy and childhood?
When chondrocytes in lacunae divide and form new matrix, it leads to an expansion of the cartilage tissue from within. This process is called ________.
Which bone serves as an enclosure for the pituitary gland?
The sella turcica of the sphenoid bone serves as an enclosure for the pituitary gland.
What is the joint formed by the condylar process of the mandible and the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone?
What causes osteoporosis?
Osteoclasts out-pace osteoblasts due to low hormone production of the ovaries.
A cleft palate arises when the right and left _____________ bones fail to fuse medially during fetal development.
During bone growth, which event is most significant at the surface indicated by the letter B?
calcification of the cartilage matrix
Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is of greatest importance for bone growth during infancy and childhood?
An osteon contains osteocytes, lamellae, and a central canal, and is found in compact bone only.
Choose the TRUE statement.
Endochondral ossification converts hyaline cartilage "bone" models into true bones (i.e., hyaline cartilage serves as a template for bone formation).
When should prevention of osteoporosis start?
The prevention of osteoporosis should begin with children while bones are still growing. Children should increase their bone mass to provide additional protection from osteoporosis in the future.
Short, irregular, and flat bones have large marrow cavities in order to keep the weight of the bones light.
Which of the following is an abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebral column often seen in the thoracic region?
During late pregnancy, women may exhibit temporary lordosis. This is advantageous because temporary lordosis _________.
makes it easier for a woman to maintain her balance
Alice and James adopted a 3-year-old child from a developing country. They noticed that her legs were bowed and there were some deformities in her cranial and pelvic bones. They brought her to a physician for a diagnosis. What was the diagnosis, and what was the treatment for the disorder?
The child most likely has rickets. Treatment is to increase the intake of calcium and vitamin D in the diet, and to get some sunshine every day.
Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes this process?
In some cases the epiphyseal plate of the long bones of children closes too early. What might be the cause?
elevated levels of sex hormones
Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called periosteum. The inner (osteogenic) layer consists primarily of ________.
osteoblasts and osteoclasts
Why, or why not, is swimming recommended as an exercise to prevent osteoporosis?
Swimming is not recommended to prevent osteoporosis, as it is not considered a weight-bearing exercise.
The correct order (from start to finish) of fracture repair is ________.
hematoma formation, fibrocartilaginous callus formation, bony callus formation, and bone remodeling
Which of the following is the abnormal curve often seen in pregnant women as they attempt to preserve their center of gravity toward the end of the pregnancy?
The periosteum is a tissue that serves only to protect the bone because it is not supplied with nerves or blood vessels.
All of the bones of the adult skull, except the mandible, are united by sutures and are therefore immovable.
Which of the following phrases best describes the function of the vertebral curves?
to provide resilience and flexibility
Wolff's law is concerned with ________.
the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it
Which of the following is true about paranasal sinuses?
Paranasal sinuses enhance the resonance of the voice and lighten the skull.
Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake of ________.
calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D
Which of the following glands or organs produces hormones that tend to decrease blood calcium levels?