white performers who blackened their skin and carried out parodies of artificial af am music. dance, dress, and dialect. 1829. 1840-1870.no way an authentic representation of black singing, speaking, dancing, or humor — though white Americans (and Europeans) had long since developed a fascination with those things. Some white Americans had imitated black behaviors on their own, more often in private. But the important idea here — the one that really begins our discussion of popular music in America — is that minstrelsy was invented to be done on the stage, and to make money. typical minstrel song- sung by one member of troupe accompanied by a fiddle, one or more banjos, tambourine, and a pair of rib bones to create a syncopated rythym. 1832. His clothing is always tattered, patched, and dirty. And yet, he seems perfectly happy, a state he maintains by singing and dancing the day away — no doubt at his master's discretion, of course. The Jim Crow character is the "good slave," who was obedient, fun-loving, not very bright, and faithful to the white ruling class, especially his master. (Jim Crow evolved into an even more general black caricature — the "Sambo.") accompanied by syncopation. dialect was partly white and black- dialects heard by rice as a youngster. published in 1834. familiar verse-chorus ballad form. banjo playing, wild dancing, barnyard animals. consisted of "Zipedeedooda" as the bad slave, who dressed like a dandy, even if he didn't "deserve" to wear his fancy clothes (slaves were expected to wear the clothes they were given, which usually meant ill-fitting garments of the coarsest fabrics — whatever was the cheapest). The character of Zip Coon also spoke with a black dialect, but his character "flaw" was that he believed himself more intelligent than his social status would have allowed. The comedy of his character relied on the mispronunciation of multi-syllabic words, whose meaning he always mistook. Unlike Jim Crow, Zip Coon did not "know his place" in society; he "put on airs" and pretended he was equivalent to whites. Here's an image based on the Zip Coon character, from a piece of music of the same name (the song begins with the words "O ole Zip Coon he is a larned skoler," the apparent irony being that, supposedly by nature, no black person could ever be intelligent enough to be a scholar) 1861-1865. Brass instruments were less subject to changes in heat and humidity, for example, and in some ways were easier to learn and play, and less likely to be damaged than string instruments made of fragile wood.concerts, dancing, political events, holidays, and general entertainment. They played military marches, of course, but also waltzes and polkas, "plantation melodies" (songs from minstrel shows, in other words), semi-classical "parlor tunes" (which was another Stephen Foster specialty, with songs such as "[I Dream of] Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair"). They also played well-known orchestra and opera melodies--arranged for band, of course. Because they were so widespread, brass bands helped popularize tunes of the day. (Stephen Foster's work was especially well represented.) Written arrangements printed for such groups were passed from band to band, sometimes even copied by hand, creating another avenue for spreading the popularity of various songs. This is a music structure with roots in classical music, where the melodies and chords evolve and change from a piece's beginning to its ending. In sectional form, melodies are introduced and repeated once, and then a new melody is presented and repeated, and so on, so that if we represent the sections with letters, we find forms that could be described as AABBACCDD (for one example). The thing to remember is that sectional form contains much less repetition than forms we will look at later, such as the twelve-bar blues, the thirty-two bar Tin Pan Alley form, or the verse-chorus form--all of which essentially are cyclical, repeating over and over until the performance ends. Sousa contributed.Sections are sixteen measures long (with two beats in a measure). Each section is played once, repeated nearly exactly, and then a new section is introduced, repeated, after which a third section is introduced . . . and so on. Long Progressive form.