183 terms

Social Work Flashcards


Terms in this set (...)

An experience in which repressed memories of a painful event or conflict are restored to consciousness. The memory is not only recovered, but also it is relived with the appropriate emotional content.
Active Listening
A technique and attitude of listening fully to what the speaker is saying. It is a structured form of listening with the goal of responding in a manner which focuses on what the speaker is concentrating upon. The listener often responds with rewording the speakers content or with clarifying questions.
Ad hoc
A committee formed to address a particular situation; once the issue has been addressed, it is dissolved
Americans with Disabilities Act - prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities by employers and assures the same protections and guarantees as nondisabled persons have. The definition of disability includes visual or hearing impairment, alcohol & drug problems, and HIV disease.
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - symptoms are impulsive behavior, short attention span, inability to sit quietly, inattentiveness. This can manifest itself at any stage of development through adolescence.
Adjustment Disorders
A group of disorders manifesting emotional or behavioral symptoms in response to a determinable stressor or stressors that occurred within three months of the onset of the symptoms
Alcohol Abuse vs. Alcohol Dependence
Abuse - involves use of alcohol in such a manner as to bring harm or threat of harm to oneself or another. Dependence - a pattern of alcohol use that causes impaired social functioning.
Opposing attitudes or emotions concerning an idea, an object or a person that exist at the same time.
Anaclitic Depression
Depression experienced with the fear of losing a primary caregiver.
Malcolm Knowles described the process of teaching adults which involves the self-directed nature (autonomy) of adults, recognizes the adult's life experiences, and moves the learner toward practical applications of the learned information.
The partial or full loss of societal or personal values, mores, norms or rules of conduct. This can also be observed in a group which has been severely traumatized by a disaster leading to dissipation or loss of group cohesion.
A drug (generic name disulfiram) which causes nausea for anyone ingesting alcohol. It is used in the treatment of alcoholism as a form of aversion therapy.
Psychotropic drugs used to relieve the symptoms of depression; examples include Prozac, Elavil, Tofranil, Sinequan, and Marplan
Antisocial Personality Disorder
An extensive lack of caring and trampling upon the rights of others that has been evident from the age of 15 in an adult age 18 or older. The DSM-IV describes such behaviors as nonconformance to the law, repeated lying, impulsivity, aggressiveness, no regard for safety, lack of remorse and continual irresponsibility.
Asperger's Syndrome
A Pervasive Developmental Disorder which resembles Autistic Disorder but occurs later in development. This individual usually suffers from impairments in social interactions for life.
A basic research concept involving a characteristic or distinction such as age or race
Auditory Hallucination
Sound (hearing people talk or sounds) that are not actually occurring
Authoritarian (Style of Leadership)
A system of leadership in which the director makes decisions unilaterally and expects full compliance of the lower ranking staff members
Aversion Therapy
Used in Behavior Therapy, this involves pairing an undesired behavior with an aversive stimulus to eliminate the behavior.
Axis I
Clinical disorders, most V-Codes, and conditions that need clinical action
Axis II
Personality disorders and mental retardation
Axis III
General Medical Conditions
Axis IV
Psychosocial and environmental problems
Axis V
Global assessment of functioning scale (GAF)
In behavioral therapy, the baseline is the measurement of how many times a behavior or event occurs before treatment commences.
Using mechanical monitoring of certain internal physiological processes (i.e. blood pressure, brain waves activity, muscle tension, heart rate, galvanic skin response, etc.), feedback is given to the individual helping him/her to control these normally unreachable processes.
Bipolar Disorder
Characterized by an extreme mood either in the depressed or manic state or swings between the two. Previously known as Manic-depressive.
Bipolar I Disorder
Characterized by one or more manic episodes usually preceded by or followed by a major depressive disorder.
Bipolar II Disorder
Characterized by the occurrence of one or more major depressive episodes, not associated with manic or mixed episodes, but having at least one hypomanic component
One of the Personality disorders. The Borderline Personality manifests instability inn mood and interpersonal relationships. Impulsive behavior, anger, feelings of emptiness are common aspects of this disorder.
A broker is a social worker or community worker who helps individuals or groups to identify community resources and facilitates networking between the groups for the purpose of working together for common goals and benefits.
an established value of money per person relating to how much is available for services provided
Chi Square
The method for estimating the difference in the expected values of a distribution from the actual observations; The outcome can be evaluated as to whether it is due to chance alone or not.
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
A Pervasive Developmental Disorder with onset after age two and before age 10. Loss of acquired verbal skills, relationship skills, and adaptive behavior appears, and the child begins manifesting behaviors associated with autism.
When an opposing view is anticipated by a group, the threatening individual or organization is invited to join the threatened group. This tends to minimize the damage that the dissenter can have upon the group.
Cognitive Dissonance
Experiencing two or more radically opposed ideas or beliefs simultaneously. In a healthy person, this usually leads to mental stress and an eventual sorting out of the discrepancy.
Cognitive Therapy
Concentrates on the conscious mental processes, motivations and reasons for behavior. Various schools of cognitive therapy include rational casework, reality therapy, and rational-emotive therapy.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
Various approaches to therapy based in cognitive theories. These approaches tend to focus on the present, have short term foci, and have specific goals relating to changing behavior or perception.
The process of coordinating services or therapy between two or more individuals for the purpose of serving a client (individual, family, group, or selected population). The professionals can be working within one organization or with some independence in multiple groups.
Collective Unconsciousness
A segment of Jungian theory which postulates a set of racial memories universal to the human race and transmitted by genes.
Conduct Disorder
A cluster of behaviors which disregards the mental and physical welfare of others. Grouped into four categories: harming people or animals, lying or stealing, destruction of property, major infractions of rules or laws.
Conjoint Family Therapy
Treating the family as a unit, CMT approaches the family together, and the therapist or treatment team meet in sessions attended simultaneously by as many members of the unit as is possible.
A measure of the relationship between the independent and dependent variable;
This can be a positive relationship (one increases, the other increases) or a negative relationship (one increases, the other decreases).
Cost-Benefit Analysis
A procedure in which the various goals of an organization are evaluated by comparing cost (resources) to the goals achieved
This concept refers to the reassigning of feelings felt in the past by a therapist or social worker toward a client. It is identical to transference with the exception being that the therapist is transferring his/her feelings or wishes to the client rather than the client doing the transferring.
Cycle of Abuse
The continuation of abusive behavior by one who has been a victim of abuse.
Cyclothymic Disorder
A mood disturbance characterized by swings between depressive symptoms and hypomanic episodes. This is similar to bipolar disorder, but less severe. It must have lasted at least two years in adults or one year in children or adolescents. It is not considered to be physiological in etiology.
A syndrome (cluster of symptoms) involving an acute decrease in attention, perception, and cognition. Not a disease per se, but a symptom of brain or mental dysfunction. Often accompanied with hallucination, delusion and anxiety.
Symptoms with multiple possibilities of cause which involve a progressive decline in mental functioning resulting from injury or disease in the brain. Areas affected include memory, attention, language, and problem solving. Late decline includes disorientation in time, space and nonrecognition of familiar people.
Democratic (Style of Leadership)
A style of leadership characterized by the leader asking subordinates for input and subsequently implementing policy based on the responses provided
Disengaged Family
The disengaged family contains individuals who have developed extremely rigid boundaries that promote isolation and minimal interaction within the family.
Distinctions of Catatonic Schizophrenia
look for body clues such as stupor, rigidity, posturing, and random motor activity as well as mutism, echolalia or echopraxia
Distinctions of Disorganized (Hebephrenic) Schizophrenia
Incoherent verbalizations, extreme disorganized behavior
Distinctions of Paranoid Schizophrenia
preoccupation with delusion(s) or frequent auditory hallucinations, no symptoms of catatonia or hebephrenia
Distinctions of Residual Schizophrenia
absence of noteworthy symptoms of catatonia, hebephrenia, or paranoia with several symptoms of schizophrenia such as bizarre beliefs or strange perceptual experiences
Distinctions of Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
lacks the criteria for other forms but delusions, hallucinations and/or incoherence are present
Door Knob Communication
The sharing of significant information just as the session is ending.
Double Bind
In communication theory, this is the process in which a message has a surface meaning which is contradicted by the subsequent behavior of the message giver.
Diagnostic Related Group
the impulses and urges which are the underlying causes for overt behavior according to psychoanalytic theory
Drug Abuse
Less severe than drug dependence with less chance of withdrawal symptoms, but continued use in spite of undesirable consequences
Drug Dependence
drug use involving inability to stop using; degradation in social, work, and recreational activities; withdrawal symptoms
Dysthymic Disorder
A mood disorder involving symptoms of sadness, pessimism, eating problems, fatigue, poor self-esteem, touchiness, and inability to make up one's mind that lasts at least two years for a majority of the each day.
Recurring parroting of words or sounds. Normal phase in language development
(9 to 12 months). When it occurs later in life, it is seen as maladaptive and can often be found in various types of schizophrenia.
Educator Role
The function of the social worker in which the social worker teaches clients needed adaptive skills.
Effectiveness (Administration and Supervision)
Referring to how well an agency or program accomplishes it goals
Efficiency (Administration and Supervision)
A measure of the needed resources to accomplish a goal; the ideal is to get maximum results with a minimum of resources
Ego Dystonic
Values, personality traits, thoughts and behaviors which are part of an individual and are considered to be INCONSISTENT with his/her self-perception.
Ego Syntonic
Values, personality traits, thoughts and behaviors which are part of an individual and are considered to be CONSISTENT with his/her self-perception.
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Stages of Death and Dying
1) denial and isolation, 2) anger, 3) bargaining 4) depression 5) acceptance
Enabler Role
The function of the social worker in which the client is helped to cope with situational or transitional stress.
Release of feces into inappropriate places at least once a month for at least three consecutive months.
Enmeshed Family
The enmeshed family involves a lack of individual differentiation between family members. Dependence and rigid family roles are the norm. Resistance to change and outside intervention is quite common to this type of family.
A system (family) is winding down, dissolving, or becoming dysfunctional.
The uncontrolled voiding of urine.
Erickson's Epigenetic Model
Erickson viewed man as being born with all of his psychosocial developmental stages in latent form and that they developed in a set order brought about by psychosocial pressure caused by physiological development and societal input. They were not static and could be altered by subsequent input.
Existential Theory
Erickson viewed man as being born with all of his psychosocial developmental stages in latent form and that they developed in a set order brought about by psychosocial pressure caused by physiological development and societal input. They were not static and could be altered by subsequent input.
The causative factors underlying a problem or disorder.
Existential Theory
Centers on the individual and his autonomy. Meaning is derived from the choices made by the individual and the suffering he experiences. The need for dialog and the therapist's recognition of the client's own need for self determination are primary considerations.
An elimination or lessening of the conditioned response occurs when the reinforcement is stopped and is known as operant conditioning. When the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned response is affected negatively it is known as operant conditioning.
Facilitator Role
The function of the social worker in which the social worker stimulates change through the coordinating of various resources and the presentation of these resources to the client or group being helped.
Family Preservation
Organized programs to provide the needed resources (i.e. therapy, education, parenting & relationship skills training, support, health care, etc.) to keep families intact and avoid the loss of children through foster placement, abandonment, running away, and juvenile incarceration.
Flooding involves exposing the client with the imagery or actuality of his/her phobia with enough regularity to extinguish the fear. Rather than exaggerating the phobia, the amount of exposure to the phobia is increased.
Formative (Administrative Evaluation)
A process oriented evaluation which views a program as it evolves; needed changes for increased efficiency and effectiveness are implemented as a result of this evaluation
functional community
A set of people or organizations which has shared goals or purposes toward outcomes held in common (i.e. education, religious, business)
Functions of the Board
involvement in fund raising, creating general policies and services, hiring of executive director, oversight of overall operation, liaison to community
Functions of the Executive Director
Budgeting, coordinating, directing, evaluating, organizing, planning, reporting, staffing
the agent enabling or blocking communication from one group to another
a pictorial representation of a family showing interactions such as sociological relationships and events, bloodlines and other relevant psychological attachments. It extends over at least three generations.
Gestalt Therapy
Associated with Fritz Perls. It emphasizes the integration of the thoughts, emotions and behaviors. Emphasis on personal responsibility for one's actions and on the spontaneous expression of emotions and perceptions is stressed.
Gustatory Hallucination
An imagined taste.
Perceptions not founded in reality.
Haptic Hallucination
An imagined perception involving touch.
Histrionic Personality Disorder
Often referred to as a "hysterical personality" or "hysteric," this disorder is characterized by overly dramatic or exaggerated behavior with the goal of receiving attention or excitement. Suicide threats, expressions of helplessness and dependence, and manipulative gestures are common to this personality disorder.
Behavior associated with extremely dramatic, explosive, overreactive, or manipulative behavior.
A bipolar disorder which involves manic episodes, but not to the severity that would impair functioning.
International Classification of Diseases (used in the DRG system)
Individual Education Plan
Implosion exposes the client to an anxiety producing stimulus and encourages the client to experience as much anxiety as possible. No harm is forthcoming leading to no reinforcement of the responses and eventually to extinguishing the fear response.
Incremental Budget
Budgeting process which assumes that the previous allocations and priorities were correct and that changes need only be made in allocation amounts
Interval Variable
The variable can be measured on a logical scale that shows its distance or difference from another variable; e.g. Fahrenheit temperature scale or I.Q.; zero does not mean nothing on these scales (Ratio variable handles this kind of measurement)
The body's reaction to the ingestion of a foreign substance which affects the mental and physical capabilities of an organism. Drunkenness is the most common form of intoxication.
In family therapy, a therapist becomes a "member" of the family in order to facilitate correction of dysfunctional aspects of the family.
Kegel Exercise
Exercising the muscles attached to pelvic bone. It is used in sex therapy treatment.
Kohlberg Moral Development Theory
The six stages involve: 1) avoiding punishment 2) getting rewards 3) being seen as good and not being disliked 4) conscience developing, with recognition of need for law and order 5) recognition of competing values with need for impartial judgments 6) recognition of universal moral values and committing to them
Korsakoff's Syndrome
Memory loss caused by the long term abuse of alcohol.
Laissez-faire (Style of Leadership)
A style of leadership in which the leader takes a hands-off approach to the actions of the subordinates; everyone is given as much autonomy as is possible in accomplishing the goals of the organization
Learning Disabilities
Disorders described in the DSM-IV pertaining to major impediments in listening, talking, reading, writing, logical thinking, and understanding math. More common in males, ages 8-13.
Level of Significance
A statistical term used to describe the chances of an outcome occurring. A level of significance of .05 would predict that in 100 trials, a specified outcome would occur five times.
Line Item
One item in the budget; normally compared with the previous year's item in determining how much to allocate for the year being developed
Major Tranquilizers
For treatment of severe psychotic disorders; intention is to inhibit abnormal behavior, agitation, hyperactivity, hallucinations
Hospitalism, failure to thrive, gradual decline. Often found in institutionalized children who are given minimal care and attention.
Margaret Mahler Stages of Development
Autism (birth to 2 months), Symbiosis (2 to 5 months), Differentiation (5-10 months), Practicing (10-15 months), Rapprochement (15-24 months), Individuation (24-36 months) [times are only approximations, varies with individuals]
In statistics, the average of the raw scores of a frequency distribution
Means Test
A criterion involving the client's ability to pay for part or all of a benefit being offered. This is used to determine if a client is eligible for a particular benefit or program.
In statistics, the score in a distribution which is above 50% of the scores and below 50% of the scores
Acting as a go-between for opposing individuals or groups for the purpose of reaching agreement or compromise that is acceptable to both parties.
Medical Model
Treating people with mental disorders or problems as if their disorders' etiologies are organically based and can be treated in a manner similar to treating a disease. Less attention is given to elements of the patient's environment, and the emphasis is on labeling and treating with drugs.
Mental Retardation
Diagnostic criteria must have onset preceding 18th birthday; Mild (50/55 to 70), Moderate (35/40 to 50/55), Severe (20/25 to 35/40), Profound (Below 20)
Mental Status Exam
Mental Status Exam
Mild Retardation
Minor Tranquilizers
Mobilizer Role
Evaluation of one's orientation in time, space and perception. Questions are asked about who one is, where one is and what day is it. Affect is also evaluated.
Minor Tranquilizers
anti-anxiety agents; intention is to reduce anxiety or fear
Mobilizer Role
The function of the social worker in which the the social worker acts as a catalyst to encourage individuals and organizations to pool their resources for the purpose of reaching shared goals.
In statistics, the score in a distribution which occurs with the most frequency
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Characterized by extreme Egocentric behaviors, low empathy, poor interpersonal friendships, and bouts of depression.
Needs Assessment
A methodical evaluation of a client's problems, available resources, possible solutions and impediments to reaching therapeutic goals by a professional
Negative Entropy
The survival or restoration of a family system to functional status is driven by negative entropy. Input or energy from outside the system is the source.
Nightmare Disorder
The nightmare disorder is a sleep disorder of the parasomnia type. It involves frequent awakenings from sleep due to frightening dreams.
Nominal Variable
Attribute is a discrete description such as religion, hair color, or gender
Null Hypothesis
An assumption that there is no statistical difference between two or more samples. It is assumed to be true until proved false in which case the argument for its implicit alternative hypothesis becomes the likely true hypothesis.
Object Relations Theory
This involves the idea that the ego-self defines itself (exists) in terms of relationships to other objects. Objects are either external or internalized versions of external objects. Three fundamental (and universal) affects associated with relationships are attachment, frustration, and rejection.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
An anxiety disorder in which the individual experiences undesired, repetitive, and incessant thoughts, impulses or visions. (Obsessive component) Ritualistic or behavior may result in reaction to conflict or anxiety. (Compulsive component)
Olfactory Hallucination
An imagined perception involving smell
Operant Conditioning
Behavioral learning studied by B.F. Skinner. It changes behavior by following the behavior with a consequence that is either positive (increases likelihood of repetition) or negative (decreases likelihood of repetition).
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
A less severe form of Conduct Disorder which does not involve repeated violations of the rights of others.
Ordinal Variable
The attribute can be ordered in terms of less or more
Organizational Development (Administration and Supervision)
Activities aimed at improving group members' problem solving abilities, communication skills, and team cohesiveness with the goal of improving service outcomes
Organizational maintenance
activities targeted to maintain or enhance an organization
A sleep disorder which involves psychological or physiological events during sleep or in the transition from sleep to consciousness.
Parkinson's Disease
A very slow moving, degenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by impairment of motor skills and speech.
Treating an individual's problems as not being connected with the purpose of pursuing separate solutions aimed at specific areas. This allows for prioritizing problems, treatment of problems needing immediate attention, and simplifying treatment to a more manageable level.
Ingesting materials other than food
Precipitating Cause
An identified event or stressor that appears to have been the instigator of a client's problem or disorder. This is sometimes used to refer to the event or stressor which results in the client seeking help.
Presenting Problem
The cluster of symptoms or relational and welfare issues that are seen by the client or the client's significant others which constitutes the reason for seeking help. These are not necessarily the underlying causes of the client's discomfort. Exploration of this problem is only the beginning of the assessment phase.
Prodromal Phase
In schizophrenia, this is the period when deterioration begins to be apparent leading to the active phase
Program-based Budgeting
Organizing expenses and resources by the agency's different ideas
Psychodynamic Therapy
Recognizes the importance of the interplay of mental and emotional aspects of the mind as well as the genetic and environmental components upon behavior. Culture, perception, life realities, experiences and memories are also of paramount importance in studying and treating behavior.
Ratio Variable
Like the Interval Variable, but with an absolute zero meaning nothing
helps a family or individual to see a symptom or pattern of behavior in a different light
In statistics, this is the dependability and consistency of results from a test or experiment. In discussing a test or experiment, reliability is paired with validity.
Rett's Disorder
A Pervasive Developmental Disorder which occurs several months after birth only in females. The infant appears to be developing normally and then experiences slowing of head growth accompanied by loss in developed motor skills and impaired language acquisition.
Subjective Objective Assessment Plan (SOAP)
A method of organizing client notes or charts
Placing the blame on an individual for or associating an individual with an event or action by a person or group that is unable or unwilling to deal with the actual cause.
An individual having personality traits that lead him to emotional isolation from others. Such traits as aloofness, social withdrawal, and indifference to others are associated with this personality.
A psychotic state, not usually associated with organic mental disorder or mood disorder. Must have lasted more than 6 months and onset before age 45. It is characterized by severe thought disorders, speech pathologies, inappropriate affect, and bizarre; regressive; or withdrawn behavior.
School Social Worker
A social worker who specializes in school issues and works with student issues. Helping students to successfully adjust and complete school are the key goals. The school social worker works with the student, the school, the family and the community to achieve these goals.
Scripts (TA)
Behaviors or actions taken in response to specific social situations or relationships. They are often counterproductive to the individual's goals or desired outcomes.
This is a technique sometimes used by group and family therapists to help family or group members understand the perceived relationships in the unit. Individuals are asked to assume certain positions and hold certain gestures representing the individual's place in the group.
Drugs used to reduce anxiety, activity or induce sleep
Separation Anxiety
A fear most commonly associated with a young child when the child imagines or is faced with the reality of the loss of the child's caregiver. It is sometimes observed in older children and even adults in times of crisis or extreme stress.
Sleep Terror Disorder
Sleep Terror is a parasomnia type which involves frequent awakenings in a state of extreme fright. It is distinguished from the nightmare disorder by the individual's lack of memory of a dream and the difficulty of awakening.
Somatoform Disorder
Having the appearance of a physical illness with no discernible organic causes. Somatization, body dysmorphic, hypochondriasis, conversion and psychogenic pain are specific disorders in this category.
Span of Control
Total number of employees supervised by a superior; six to twelve people under one supervisor is considered to be optimum for effectiveness
Statistical Significance
Assuming the null hypothesis to be true, a maximum probability of an occurrence happening by accident is computed. If the frequency of occurrence is less then the null hypothesis is rejected and a relationship is inferred.
Summative (Administrative Evaluation)
An outcome based evaluation of a program is used for applying the generalized results to other programs or situations
Case discussion, live supervision, group supervision, role playing
Systematic Desensitization
The associating of a new response (pleasant) with a stimulus that caused negative feelings or behaviors.
A formula for evaluating the means of two groups. It is used in comparing two groups such as in an experiment which involves controlling a variable in each group and looking for a difference in outcome. It is computed using a ratio of the difference of each group's mean (average) to dispersion of the scores.
Task-Centered Treatment
A short-term intervention meant to help the client identify and overcome obstacles and problems. Problems are identified, resources are marshaled, contracts are constructed and progress is monitored. The social worker acts as a check for realistic thinking.
The Functions of Supervision
According to Alfred Kadushin, it is administration, education, and support.
Token Economy
Using tokens, coupons, notes or other symbols to reward the completion of desired tasks or behaviors that can be saved and turned in for privileges or things.
Tourette's Syndrome
Vocal tics accompanied by motor tics occurring multiple times per day, periodically for more than a year
First coined in psychoanalytic theory, this concept refers to the reassigning of feelings felt in the past toward a significant person to a therapist.
Transitional Object
Usually a soft toy or object such as a teddy bear, doll, blanket, etc. which helps the very young child deal with separation from the mother. For the child, the object takes on the characteristics of the mother and helps the child deal with the mother's absences.
A technique used in helping the social worker determine which person or problem is in the most need of immediate attention, and allowing her/him to put less urgent problems on hold in order of their severity
Triangulation is the action of bringing another individual into a situation to act as an ally or distracter when an individual feels powerless or misunderstood.
Type I Error (Error of the First Kind)
This error occurs when an observer detects a false positive; Rejecting the null hypothesis when in fact the null hypothesis is correct.
Type II Error (Error of the Second Kind)
This error occurs when an observer detects a false negative; Accepting the null hypothesis when in fact the null hypothesis is wrong.
Unconditional Positive Regard
This involves the concept of seeing the client as worthy of respect and dignity regardless of the client's actions or stated beliefs. This is a paramount component of the professional behavior of the social worker and is part of the ethical principles of social work.
Undoing involves ritualistic repetitions with the intention of reversing or getting rid of an undesired action already taken. This defense mechanism is usually associated with children.
In statistics, validity is concerned with the applicability of the measure to the characteristic being evaluated. This goes hand-in-hand with reliability.
A basic research concept involving attributes as a group which covers the spectrum of a study; each component of the study is found within only one of the attributes
Visual Hallucination
an imagined perception involving sight
Physiological changes caused by the removal of a substance which an organism has become dependent upon
Zero-based Budgeting
A process not related to a previous budget; the budget is expected to be developed from scratch