51 terms

BIOL 101 Dr. K Spring 2018 Exam 1

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Evolution
change over time in a population
Hierarchy
atom, molecules, cells, tissue, organs, organ system, individual, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere
Matter
anything that takes up space and has mass
Traits of Living Organism
reproduction, genetic material, plasma membrane, homeostasis, cytosol, energy
All Cells
plasma membrane, cytosol, genetic material
Cell
smallest unit of life
Atom
smallest unit of matter
Population
same species in a particular area
(cats in Salisbury)
Community
different species in a particular area (cats, bats, rats in Salisbury)
Ecosystem
different species interacting with their environment
Species described
1.8 million
Plants described
250,000
Vertebrates described
50,000
Insects described
750,000
Yet to be described
5-30 million
Biological classification
Domain, Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family genus, species
Domains
Eukarya, Archaea, bacteria
Kingdoms
animal (multicellular), plant (multicellular), Protista (uni/multicellular), fungi (uni/multicellular)
Prokaryotes
archaea, bacteria. Have no nucleus or membrane organelles
Natural Selection
adapting to be better equipped towards ones environment
Charles Darwin/Alfred Wallace
discovered natural selection
On the Origin of Species
Charles Darwin
Subatomic Particles
electron, proton, neutron
Atomic number
number of protons
Atomic mass
sum of proton and neutrons
CHNOPS
Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Sulfur (make up 98% of organisms)
Isotope
adding neutrons to the nucleus
Ionic bond
giving away an electron to another atom
Covalent bonds
sharing electrons between atoms. Non-polar sharing equally. polar sharing electrons unequally
Properties of water
adhesion/cohesion. high surface tension. high heat capacity. solvent. ice is less dense
Dehydration synthesis
taking water out of the molecule to create a larger molecule
Hydrolysis
adding water to break down a larger molecule
Carbohydrates
provide energy. sugar. monomer: glucose
Lipids
store energy. do not have a monomer. basic units: glycerol and fatty acid
Proteins
catalyst. monomer: amino acids
Nucleic Acids
store information. monomer: nucleotides. DNA RNA
Monomer
buildings blocks of a biological molecule
Polymer
monomers combined
Mitochondria
creates ATP (energy)
Ribosomes
protein helping with various tasks
Endomembrane system
endoplasmic recticulum (Rough ER: proteins, Smooth ER: lipids), Golgi apparatus (Directs molecules in the cell), Vesicles (Take molecules to various parts of the cell), Vacuoles/lysosome (breakdown molecules)
Chloroplasts
where photosynthesis occurs
Cell membrane
controls what goes in and out of the cell, made up of a phospholipid bilayer
Osmosis
diffusion of water in and out of the cell
Passive Transport
No energy. Includes simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion. Moves from higher to lower concentration
Simple diffusion
nonpolar molecules moving from a higher to lower concentration in or out of the cell
Facilitated diffusion
polar molecules assisted with a membrane protein in or out of the cell from a higher to lower concentration
Active Transport
Uses ATP (energy) to move molecules with membrane proteins from lower to higher concentration
ATP
adenine triphosphate
Enzyme
protein, catalyst for most chemical reactions within the cell
Active Site
where the chemical reaction takes place on the enzyme
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