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Equations to study for AP Exams

Average Velocity=



Change in Velocity/Time

Final Velocity=

Initial Velocity + (acceleration)(time)


(initial velocity)(time) + (1/2)(acceleration)(time)²

Final Velocity²=

Initial Velocity² + (2)(Acceleration)(Distance)


(Net Force) / (Mass)

Force Of Friction=

(µ)(Normal Force)

Force of Gravity=

(G)(mass1)(mass2) / (radius)²

Acceleration Due To Gravity =

(Force Of Gravity) / (Mass)

Momentum =


Momentum Before =

Momentum After

Impulse =

(Net Force)(Time) or (Change in Momentum) or (Mass)(Change in Velocity)

Force on A Spring =

(Spring Constant)(Change in Spring Length From the Equilibrium Position)

Potential Energy Stored By A Spring =

(1/2)(Spring Constant)(Change in Spring Length From the Equilibrium Postion)²

Centripetal Force =

(Mass)(Centripetal Acceleration) or (Mass)(Velocity)² / (Radius)

Centripetal Acceleration =

(Velocity)² / (Radius)

Change in Potential Energy =

(Mass)(Acceleration due to Gravity)(Change in Height)

Kinetic Energy =


Work =

(Force)(Distance) or (Change in Total Energy)

Total Energy =

(Potential Energy) + (Kinetic Energy) + (Internal Energy)

Power =

(Work) / (Time) or (Force)(Distance) / (Time) or (Force)(Average Velocity)

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