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69 terms

Biology Chapter 34

STUDY
PLAY
Ecology is the study of environmental interactions at the following levels, from least inclusive to most inclusive: _____.
organism, population, community, ecosystem
The most inclusive level of organization in nature is the _____.
biosphere
The ______ is the global ecosystem, the sum of all the planet's ecosystems, of all life and where it lives.
biosphere
An organism's environment consists of _____.
abiotic and biotic factors
The presence of a species in a particular place, and its ability to reproduce there, implies that _____.
the species is adapted to the type of abiotic and biotic environmental conditions found at that location
In most cases, the two major climatic factors affecting the distribution of organisms are _____.
rainfall and temperature
The ocean's pelagic zone contains what type(s) of organisms?
swimming and drifting organisms
major type of ecological association that occupies a broad geographic region
biome
The most nutrient-poor soils are found in _____ biomes.
tropical rain forest
Fire helps to maintain the existence of which biomes?
savanna, chaparral, and temperate grassland
The _____ biome contains land that can be used for highly productive agriculture.
temperate grassland
________ is characterized by soils made rich in nutrients by an abundance of grass roots.
Temperate grassland
Which of these is a biotic component of an environment?

bacteria on the surface of your skin

light

the availability of water

the mineral supplements you consume

the temperature where you live
bacteria on the surface of your skin
Desert owls are inactive during the day and active at night. They also have small bodies. This describes _____ adaptation to the hot and dry desert.
anatomical and behavioral
Horned lizards are desert animals that are active during the day. Their skin and kidneys are efficient at conserving water; when they get hot, they move to the shade so they can cool off. This describes _____ adaptation to the hot and dry desert.
anatomical, behavioral, and physiological
Cacti are desert plants with C4 metabolism. In addition, cacti bloom at night. This describes _____ adaptation to the hot and dry desert.
behavioral and physiological
grasses; no trees
temperate grassland
grasses; scattered trees
savanna
cone-bearing evergreen trees
coniferous forst
deciduous trees
temp. broadleaf forest
closed forest canopy many plants frow stop other plants; woody vines
tropical rain forest
dwarf shrubs; herbaceious plants; mosses and lichens
tundra
spiny, evergreen shrubs; adapted to frequent fires
chaparal
deep-rooted shrubs; water-storing succulents
desert
Which of these is characteristic of the photic zone of a freshwater biome?
the presence of algae
relatively cool water
relatively stable water temperature
dead organic matter
low oxygen level
the presence of algae
The benthic zone of aquatic environments is defined as the _____.
substrate at the bottom of the body of water
The _____ biome is the largest of Earth's biomes.
marine
A(n) _____ is a region where fresh water and salt water mix.
estuary
What are the two major factors determining the distribution of terrestrial biomes?
temperature and rainfall
Which of these biomes is characterized by little rainfall?
desert
Which of these is the largest terrestrial biome on Earth?
tundra
coniferous forest
temperate broadleaf forest
temperate grassland
desert
coniferous forest
Which biome is characterized by an extensive canopy that allows little light to penetrate to the ground and by the presence of epiphytes?
tropical rain forest
Which biome is characterized by the presence of permafrost?
tundra
A nonliving component of an ecosystem, such as air, water, or temperature.
abiotic factor
The region of an aquatic ecosystem beneath the photic zone, where light does not penetrate enough for photosynthesis to take place.
aphotic zone
A seafloor, or the bottom of a freshwater lake, pond, river, or stream.
benthic realm
Major types of ecological associations that occupy broad geographic regions of land or water and are characterized by organisms adapted to the particular environments.
biome
The entire portion of Earth inhabited by life; the sum of all the planet's ecosystems.
biosphere
A living component of a biological community; an organism, or a factor pertaining to one or more organisms.
biotic components/factor
A biome dominated by spiny evergreen shrubs adapted to periodic drought and fires; found where cold ocean currents circulate offshore, creating mild, rainy winters and long, hot, dry summers.
chaparral
An assemblage of all the organisms living together and potentially interacting in a particular area.
community
A biome characterized by conifers, cone-bearing evergreen trees.
coniferous forest
The submerged parts of a continent.
continental shelves
A biome characterized by organisms adapted to sparse rainfall (less than 30 cm per year) and rapid evaporation.
desert
The conversion of semi-arid regions to desert.
desertification
An area of calm or very light winds near the equator, caused by rising warm air.
doldrums
The scientific study of how organisms interact with their environments.
Ecology
All the organisms in a given area, along with the nonliving (abiotic) factors with which they interact; a biological community and its physical environment.
ecosystem
The area where a freshwater stream or river merges with the ocean.
estuary
A place where an organism lives; an environment situation in which an organism lives.
habitat
A shallow zone where the waters of an estuary or ocean meet land.
intertidal zone
Several different ecosystems linked by exchanges of energy, materials, and organisms.
landscape
Riverlike flow patterns in the oceans.
ocean currents
An individual living thing, such as a bacterium, fungus, protist, plant, or animal.
organism
The region of an ocean occupied by seawater.
pelagic zone/realm
Continuously frozen ground found in the tundra.
permafrost
The region of an aquatic ecosystem into which light penetrates and where photosynthesis occurs.
photic zone
Algae and photosynthetic bacteria that drift passively in aquatic environments.
phytoplankton
A group of individuals belonging to one species and living in the same geographic area.
population
Winds that result from the combined effects of Earth's rotation and the rising and falling of air masses.
prevailing winds
A biome dominated by grasses and scattered trees.
savanna
A biome located throughout midlatitude regions where there is sufficient moisture to support the growth of large, broadleaf deciduous trees.
temperate broadleaf forest
A grassland region maintained by seasonal drought, occasional fires, and grazing by large mammals.
temperate grassland
Latitudes between the tropics and the Arctic Circle in the north and the Antarctic Circle in the south; regions with milder climates than the tropics or polar regions.
temperate zones
The movement of air in the tropics (those regions that lie between 23.5° north latitude and 23.5° south latitude).
trade winds
A terrestrial biome characterized by high levels of precipitation and warm temperatures year-round.
tropical forest
A biome at the northernmost limits of plant growth and at high altitudes, characterized by dwarf woody shrubs, grasses, mosses, and lichens.
tundra
Winds that blow from west to east.
westerlies
An ecosystem intermediate between an aquatic ecosystem and a terrestrial ecosystem. Wetland soil is saturated with water permanently or periodically.
wetland