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100 terms

Exam 1 Final AP

STUDY
PLAY
In a negative feedback mechanism
The response of the effector is to depress or end the original stiumulus
Wally was sweating profusely as he ran the 10K race. The sweat glands producing the sweat would be considered which part of the feedback system?
Effectors
All of the following are examples of the four major elements contributing to body mass (Hydrogen, Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen) NOT:
Sodium
The subatomic particles responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms are:
Electrons
Molecules formed when electrons are shared unequally are
Polar
In which mixture would you expect to find hydrogen bonds?
Sugar in water
HCl + NaOH -. NaCl +H20 is an example of an __________ reaction
Exchange
What lipid type is the foundation of the cell membrane?
Phospholipids
When a pair of electrons is shared between two atoms the bond formed is called a
Covalent Bond
Biochemical tests show a cell with replicated DNA, but incomplete synthesis of proteins needed for cell division. In what stage of the cell cycle is the cell most likely to be?
S
A cell stimulated to increase steroid production will have abundant:
Smooth ER
Cyanide binds to at least one molecule that is involved with ATP synthesis. In cells exposed to cyanide, most of the cyanide would be found in:
Mitochondria
Which of the following would you expect to find in or on cells whose main function is absorption?
Cilia
Which of the following molecules is an inorganic molecule?
Potassium Chloride
Which contains nitrogen?
Proteins
Triglycerides are composed of
Glycerol + 3 fatty acids
After the A&P exam, Walter drank a six-pack of beer and had to make several trips to the bathroom. The increase in urination reflects an increase in what process occuring in the kidneys?
Filtration
The process in which a sampling of particulate matter is engulfed and brought into the cell is called
Phagocytosis
The RNA species that carries the coded message, specifiying the sequence of amino acids in the protein to be made, from the nucleus to cytoplasm is
mRNA
Which of the following modes of transfer across a cell membrane is active?
Solute Pumping
Which of the following collections of similar cells are integrated together for a common function?
Tissues
Storage for nutrients, waste and cell products within the cytoplasm
Inclusions
The organ responsible for maintaining pH for proper homeostasis in the body
Kidney
An acidic solution has
More hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions
Which of the following are organic compounds? Pick all that apply: Carbon Dioxide, H20, fats, Oxygen, Glucose, Enzymes, KCl, DNA?
Fats, Glucose, Enzymes, DNA
Translation occurs when
tRNA couples with specific amino acids
An endocrine cell able to synthesize but not secrete protein hormones might have a malfunctioning
Golgi Aparatus
If a cell were poisoned with a substance that prevented the synthesis of ATP and the function of the Sodium-Potassium Pump, which ion would start to increase in concentration within the cell?
Sodium
What is the role of a ribosome?
It holds mRNA and tRNA in place during protein synthesis
The term used to describe the type of solution in which cells will lose their water to their environment is
hypertonic
Which molecule is most polar?
water (H-O-H)
The enzyme that catalyzses the degradation of lactose is a
protein
The end product of dehydration synthesis of a carbohydrate is
monosaccharides become joined together to form a disaccharide
Fluid moves out of capillaries by filtration. If the plasma glucose concentraion is 100mg/dl, what will be the concentration of the glucose in the filtered field?
100 mg/dl
A cell with abundant preoxisomes would most likely be involved in
detoxification activities
Consider the following: A DNA segment has this nucleotide sequence: AAGCTCTTACGAATATTC. Which mRNA matches or is complementary?
TTCGAGAATGCTTATAAG
Consider the following: A DNA segment has this nucleotide sequence: AAGCTCTTACGAATATTC. How many amino acids are coded in this segment?
6
The arbor vitae refers to
cerebellar white matter
Spinocerebellar tracts
carry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellum
The subarachnoid space lies between what two layers of the meninges?
arachnoid and pia
The white matter of the spinal cord contains
myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers
Which of the following is not a role of the basal nuclei?
initiating protective reflex actions
An individual accidentally transected the spinal cord between T1 and L1. This would result in
paraplegia
An individual who could trace a picture of a bicycle with his or her finger but could not recognize it as a bicycle is most likely to have sustained damage to the
visual association area
The blood-brain barrier is effective against
metabolic waste such as urea
Which category of memory is involved when playing the piano?
procedural
Which statement about coma is true?
Coma is defined as total unresponsiveness to stimuli for a long period of time
Second-order neurons of both specific and nonspecific ascending pathways terminate in the
thalamus
Which of the following is not an example of an exteroceptor?
baroreceptor
The posterior side of the thigh, leg, and foot is served by the
tibial nerve
Inborn or intrinsic reflexes are
involuntary, yet may be modified by learned behavior
Striking the "funny bone" is actually stimulation of (or injury to) the
ulnar nerve
Nerves that carry impulses toward the CNS only are
afferent nerves
Bell's palsy is
characterized by paralysis of facial muscles
Mixed cranial nerves containing both motor and sensory fibers include all except which of the following?
trigeminal
The flexor muscles in the anterior arm (biceps brachii and brachialis) are innervated by what nerve?
musculocutaneous
A fracture of the ethmoid bone could result in damage to which cranial nerve?
olfactory
A patient who received a blow to the side of the skull exhibits the following signs and symptoms on that side of the face: he is unable to close his eye, and the corner of his mouth droops. Which cranial nerve has been damaged?
facial
The period after an initial stimulus when a neuron is not sensitive to another stimulus is the
absolute refractory period
Which of the following is NOT a special characteristic of neurons?
they are mitotic
Which of the following is not a function of the autonomic nervous system?
innervation of skeletal muscle
The term "central nervous system" refers to the
brain and spinal cord
A neuron that has as its primary function the job of connecting other neurons is called an
association neuron
Which of the following is not a chemical class of neurotransmitters?
nucleic acid
Which of the following is false or incorrect?
A nerve impulse occurs if the excitatory and inhibitory factors are equal
Ependymal cells
help to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid
Immediately after an action potential has peaked, which cellular gates open?
potassium
An inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) is associated with
hyperpolarization
A second nerve impulse cannot be generated until
the membrane potential has been reestablished.
In what way does the interior surface of a cell membrane of a resting (nonconducting) neuron differ from the external environment? The interior is
negatively charged and contains less sodium
Select the correct statement about serial processing.
Spinal reflexes are an example of serial processing
Which of the following's structure is not part of the central nervous system?
The radial nerve
Assume that an EPSP is being generated on the dendritic membrane. Which will occur?
a single type of channel will open, permitting simultaneous flow of Na+ and K+
Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by poisoning blocks neurotransmission at the neuromuscular junction because
ACh is blocked from attaching to the postsynaptic ACh receptors
The anatomical region of a multipolar neuron that has the lowest threshold for generating an AP is the
axon hillock
Which of the following is NOT a major descending motor pathway?
spinocellular tract
Which of the following tracts controls balance during standing and moving?
vestibulospinal tract
Fiber tracts that allow neurons within the same cerebral hemisphere to communicate are
association tracts
A professor unexpectedly threw Susan's A&P book on the floor during A&P class. The students looked up, startled. The reflexive movements of their eyes were mediated by the
inferior colliculi
Victims of Polio will experience loss of certain somatic reflexes and eventually paralysis. The virus attacks and destroys which horn of the spinal cord?
ventral motor
Dorsal Root Ganglion contain
cell bodies of sensory neurons
A reflex that causes reciprocal activiation of the antagonist muscle is the
Golgi tendon
A sole motor nerve that supplies the diaphragm is the
phrenic
The sciatic nerve is composed of the following two nerves in a common sheath:
tibial and common fibular
What is the unique origin site of parasympathetic fibers?
The brain and sacral spinal cord
Which of the following are high-amplitude waves seen during deep sleep and when the RAS is damped? In awake adults, they indicate brain damage.
delta
What is the region of the insula just deep to the temporal lobe responsible for?
gustatory
The pineal gland which secretes melatonin is located in what region of the brain?
epithalamus
What region of the brain recognizes and predicts sequences of events so that it may adjust for multiple forces exerted on a limb during complex movements involving several joints. This activity occurs subconsciously.
left cerebral hemisphere
What is the central core of the fore brain which consists of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus?
diencephalon
This area is called the "executive suite" of the nervous system, where our conscious mind is found.
cerebral cortex
Which A&P I students are the best study group ever?
Gretchen, Ashley, Walter, Kelly
Which of the following is not controlled by the unique role of the sympathetic division?
GI tract
Which cranial nerve effects the heart, lungs, and mose of the visceral organs?
X (vagus nerve)
Which of the following drug type will reduce heart rate and prevent arrhythmias?
Beta-blockers
The opthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular are all branches of which cranial nerve?
Trigeminal
Areas of the skin innervated by a single spinal except C1 are called
dermatomes
All of the following are part of the limbic system except
reticular formation
Which of the following structures convert new information into long-term memories?
hippocampus
Put the phases of the Action Potential in the sequence they occur.
C, A, D, B Resting State (-70mV), Depolarization, Repolarization, Hyperpolarization